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1. Introduction

1.1 Background
Heavy rainfalls as well as runoff from the upstream hills in India have led to early flooding of vast areas of croplands of haors and low-lying areas of northeast Bangladesh. Flooding started on 28th March and gradually affected six districts (Habiganj, Kishoreganj Moulavibazar, Netrokona, Sunamganj, and Sylhet). Rising water overflowed and breeched embankments in many places and inundated vast areas of cropland, damaging a significant number of houses and impacting the lives of more than 30% of the population of these six districts (CAN report, 2017).

As agricultural land in this region remains under water for a large part of the year, there is only one cropping season in the haors and this early onset flooding destroyed the 2017 crop of Boro rice (the primary crop) at its blooming stage, 20 30 days before harvest. The daily Dhaka Tribune has estimated, based on Ministry of Agriculture’s calculation, that the country may lose around 800,000 MT of Boro rice this season1. Standing water has been contaminated by rotten paddy and plant a large number of fish and ducks have died2, although the exact cause is, as yet, unknown. Distress selling of livestock as a negative coping mechanism has already been reported. This loss of the primary crop, together with the associated loss of income for agricultural laborers and the loss of fish, will create sever food insecurity on top of the high underlying poverty in the area unless assistance is received(CAN report,2017).

The haor areas of northeast Bangladesh are almost entirely single cropped areas with the majority of the communities dependent solely on the boro3 rice crop cultivated from October to May. Significantly heavier rainfall and runoff from India caused early flooding across more than half the haor area, destroying the rice crop, fodder and killing fish and ducks. It is estimated4 that 4,667,000 people in 450 Unions (out of 530) in 60 Upazilas (out of 62) have been affected (to varying degrees) in the six districts of Sunamganj, Sylhet, Netrokona, Kishoreganj, Habiganj, and Moulvibazar. With 65% of its population affected, Sunamganj district is worst hit followed by Netrkona (33%) and Sylhet (25%). Approximately 21% of the population is affected in the other districts (Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief-Government, 2017).
Hardcore poverty and under nutrition are fundamental problems in Bangladesh There is a close relationship among poverty, landlessness, and unemployment. The rural landless, constituting about 50 percent of rural households, depend mainly on agriculture for employment. Since demand for labor in agricultural production is seasonal, during the slack season, the landless remain virtually unemployed. Even for most farmers, it is difficult to check out a respectable living from the limited land that the average Bangladeshi farmer owns. Landless and marginal farmers must often resort to self-employment. But self-employment is often not profitable enough to allow them to step out of poverty. It is therefore logical to expect that the public development strategy in Bangladesh would include programs designed to generate employment, particularly in rural areas, to reduce poverty. In fact, over the years, Bangladesh has accumulated extraordinarily rich, diverse experience in Poverty-reduction efforts, many of which involve employment generation schemes (Ahmed, 1990).
1.2 Literature Review
A few relevant literatures pertaining to hazard and risk assessment flood affect carried out in Bangladesh has reviewed here.

Hossain (2013) developed Flood risk that affects central (deeply flooded) haor basin in North-East region of Bangladesh by preparing hazard map for different return periods of flood hazard , assess agricultural flood damage by developing a damage model and preparing risk map by developing a risk model

Islam N. (2011) established damage assessment methodology where flood damage assessment has been performed through a case study in Bangladesh. In this study, non agricultural sector damage for urban flood has considered. Also depth and duration parameter were considered for the establishment of damage model.

Chowdhury and Karim (1996) developed risk-based zoning maps considering only cyclonic storm surge floods of 45 land units in the Ganges tidal flood prone area. Hazard factors were based on the simulated spatial distribution of 100-year flood depths while the vulnerability factors were based on the distribution of population densities. The land units more grouped into low risk, moderate risk, high risk and severe risk zones.

Mojumder and others (2009) find out – consolidated fund for the program has been arranged by pooling together the grants and assistance from different bilateral and multilateral donors including the WFP as well as allocations from the government for rural development.

Discussing of above literature, it has been seen that the implementation process of Governments initiatives facing early flood and people perception is very important to know and this study will deal with those matters.

1.3 Scope of the Study
The study result serves for three types of stakeholder i.e. the policy maker, the respondents and the researchers.
1.3.1 Benefits of the Policy Makers
The result of this research can help to carry a message to concern ministry to take best initiatives to create the opportunities to render a flexible service towards flood affected people in Haor area. A general knowledge about present condition of area coverage of grants implementation in early flood prone areas and how efficiently the process is using for face the crop hazards, which is depicted from the study, can help to be considered as a very important issue for development by the policy makers. The findings of the study can help in increasing government intervention for better welfare in the Haor areas.
1.3.2 Benefits of the Respondents
As the study reflects of present condition of early flood affected area, the respondents who are in Haor areas will get a general knowledge about the opportunities of grants. The study will make them aware about their right, opportunities as well as responsibilities also. The rural people can get information about various services which are provided by government and can get a comparative knowledge about both of them. The refection of the study can give them strength to protest sufferings that may be faced by them.
1.3.3 Benefits of the Researchers
The study can be a medium to know the existing coverage of government grant process in local government level in Bangladesh. The researchers will get clear hints about the barriers which are creating the gap between government’s response and the perception of early flood affected people.
1.4 Research questions
1. How response program implement at the Union level in early flood?
2. How much effective the implementation process grants?
3. What is the perception of flood affected people at government’s response.

1.5 Overall objective:
To provide a shared understanding of the impact of the Flood and effectiveness of government’s response in North-Eastern haor districts of Bangladesh.
1.6 Research objectives
1. To know the implementation process of government’s response program at Union level in early flood.
2. To identify the limitation of response process at Union level.
3. To know the affected people’s perception on governments response.
1.7 Rational of the study

Early floods have been a big threat to the livelihoods of the haor people, especially sharecroppers and landless farmers. Although crops are also damaged by drainage congestion, hailstorms, cyclones and pests, flooding is the major cause of damage, mainly to rice crop. Government generate some response to face early flood affected haor areas such as- seasonal employment for large numbers of people , Social Safety Network(SSN), special grants, seeds distributing, etc(Rahman, 2017).

If it’s implementation process goes under due instructions and with a co-ordinate way it will be possible faster development in Haor area. For benefits of the project include improved agricultural production; enhanced marketing opportunities, and rehabilitation; improved transportation and communication; and reduced physical damages of crops loss and human lives cause of early flood ,- this is emerge to know the flood hazards and implementation efficiency and effectiveness of Government’s steps to face early flood affect.

2. Research Design

2.1Typology of Study:
This study is based on exploratory research.

2.2 Why Exploratory Methodology:
Exploratory research attempts to develop a general understanding and common familiarity with a phenomenon and form new ideas and to achieve new insight into it. In this research exploratory methodology will be use because this study is an attempt to understand the present state of early flood affected people in haor and also understand the implementation process of government’s grants and attempt.

2.3 Research Method
Data will be collected through the survey method.
2.4 Approach of the Study
In this study quantitative approach will be used.
2.5 Sources of data
I. Primary Sources: The primary data will collect from individuals through simple questionnaire.
II. Secondary Sources: Secondary sources of data will use to enrich this study. Secondary data will collected from published books, e- books, journals, articles, reports of different organization which are related to the study.

2.6 Technique of Data Collection
The technique of data collection depends on the nature and objective of the study and availability of related resources. The primary data will be collected through most common method of data collection technique mixed questionnaire (Open ended and close ended) and participant observation. Secondary data will be collected through content analysis of internet browsing and published magazines and journals

2.7 Sampling Method and sample size
Two Union Parishade of different Upazila (Mohon Gonj and Dharmapasha) will select purposively (most flood prone area) in this study. All the men and women living in the Tetulia Union (Mohan Gonj) and Rajapur (Dharmapasha), the officers and employers who are working and engaged in the implementation process of FFW at the Union, beneficiaries of the programme, local representatives of Union level are the population of this study. Different sampling method will use to select respondents as follow
Category of respondents Professions/ positions Sampling method Total number of respondents
Government officials Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO) Purposive 1*2=2
Project Implementation Officer (PIO) Purposive 1*2=2
Local elected representative UP Chairman Purposive 1*2=2
UP Member Purposive ( for having experience on FFW) 3*2=6
Beneficiaries FFW beneficiaries Accidental (from the list of beneficiaries of sampled UP Member) 3*3*2 = 18
Non beneficiaries FFW/VGDF non beneficiaries Accidental 3*2= 6
Civil society Local elite, teachers , businessman Purposive 2*2=4
Total respondents = 40

2.8 Basic information about sampled Union
Union NO 1
Name 3 NO. Tetulia Union Parishad
Upazilla Mohon Gajn
Area 9898 acre
Population 18905 (census, 2011)
Village 22
Literate rate 24.30 % (education census, 2001)
Established 1994

Source: Bangladesh Jatiyo Tottho Batayon (27 July, 2017).
Union No 2
Name Sukhairh-Rajzapur South Union
Upazilla Dharmapasha
Area 9850 acre
Population 19920 (census, 2011)
Village 21
Literate rate 22.50 % (education census, 2001)
Established 1992

Source: Bangladesh Jatiyo Tottho Batayon (27 July, 2017).
2.9 Time Frame
To complete the research work approximately 6 months will be taken. This Time distribution is followed to conduct this research:

Items 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
Selecting a tentative research problem, collecting materials and submit to the supervisor for approval
Reading and reviewing literature as well as Writing Research Proposal
Submission, correction, final supervision, revision, presentation and approval of research proposal
Develop interview Schedule and data collection
Data Processing ; Analysis
Writing a draft and a final report Submission of research paper and approval of supervisor

2.10 Limitation of the Study
Making a research project is a complex and skillful work. It needs so much time and meditation. It needs to predict future effects. In doing so, some problems may have to face. These problems are as follows:
• It may have some errors due to limited of time.
• It is hard for the study to conduct a worthy research work due to lack of experience, skills, inadequate information and limited financial support.
• Problem identification and title appropriation takes long time.
• Data collection was very expensive, no institutional grants was allocated for the researcher.
• Unfavorable weather condition.

3.0 Conceptual framework
The conceptual framework presented the relationship between the specific concepts which have been studied.
In this part of research, different variables are identified on the basis of causal relationship. There are two types of variables.
• Independent Variable

• Dependent Variable

Independent Variable:
It means such variable that influence or seen to influence other variable.
Dependent Variable:
Dependent variable is those that result the function of independent variables.

Independent variables Dependent variables

1. Condition of flood affected people

1. Governments grants
2. quantity of grants
3. Early Flood
4. Implementation process of governments responses
5. Distribution of grants
6.Effectivness and efficiency of governments initiatives

4.0 Definition of key word
4.1 Union level
At present, Union level means the Union Parishad – the lowest tier of administration, is functioning through elected representatives in rural Bangladesh. According to the latest amendments of the Local Government (Union Parishads) Ordinance, 1983 a union is divided into nine wards. Each UP consists of a Chairman and nine members in the general seats – one from each ward. In addition, three seats have been exclusively reserved for women members, who are elected by the voters of the concerned three wards. The UP Chairman is directly elected by the voters of the entire union, while the voters of the concerned ward elect nine members in the general seats on the basis of adult franchise. The Chairman is considered a member of the Parishad though he enjoys the privileges of using casting vote as and when required. Both Chairman and members are paid honoraria by the government (Siddiqui, 2005).

4.2 Major Haor System
The haor basin contains about 47 major haors and some 6,300 beels of which about 3,500 are permanent and 2,800 are seasonal. Baram, Banka, Habibpur, Maka and Makalkandi haors form a single large water body during the monsoon. Ghulduba haor, Ranga and Baudha beels are located in the lower east side of the basin in Netrokana district (Khan, 2010). Tangua, Shanir, and Matan haors are situated in the deep northern basin at the foot of the Meghalaya Hills. Dekhar haor, Pathar Chanli haor, Jhilkar and Jhinkar haors cover the east of the Tangua system. Sonamoral, Halir, Joydhona and Dhankunia haors are in the north side of the Tangua haor (Khan, 2010). The Jamaikata, Mahai, Nalua and Parua haor systems are on the eastern rim of the basin. Hakaluki, Chatal Bar, Haila, Kawadighi, Pagla and many smaller haors are situated in the central Sylhet lowlands. Hail haor lies between the Tarap and Banugach hill ranges in the southeast zone. Dingapota, Ganesher, Tolar, Anganer, Bara and Humaipur haors are located in the south of the basin. Etna and Sania haors are in the Kishorganj district and
Khaliaghuri haor is in the east Mymensingh district (Hossain, 2013).

References
(1. HCTT Coordinated Needs Assessment (CAN), 2013.Floods in Northeast (Haor) areas of Bangladesh, April-May 2017, The Department of Disaster Management (DDM), Bangladesh.
2. Flood damage information, April 2017, Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, Bangladesh.
3. Ahmed, A. U. S.; Rashid, M.; Sharma and S. Zohir. 2004. Food aid distribution in Bangladesh: leakage and operational performance. IFPRI Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper No. 173, Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.

4. Hossain Md Sabbir, 2013. Flood Damage and Risk Assessment Model in the Haor Basin of Bangladesh, Bangladesh University of Engineering ; Technology Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.
5. Islam, K.M.N., 2011. Handbook of Flood Loss Assessment Methods in Non-agricultural
Sectors, a case study of Bangladesh, VDM Verlag Dr. Muller, Germany.
6. Chowdhury J.U., Karim M. F., 1996. A risk based zoning of storm surge prone area of the Ganges tidal plain, Journal of Civil Engineering, The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh, Vol. CE 24, No. 2, 1996.

7. Mojumdar, Kasem, Abul, M.; Islam, Muinul, Muhammad.; Alom, Shamsul, Md.; Rahman , Mahmudur, Md, 2009. “Transparency and Accountability for Ensuring Food Security in Bangladesh: A Study on Field Institutions”. Final Report CF # 3/07. National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme.
8. Siddiqui, Kamal. 2005. “Local Government in Bangladesh”. Dhaka: The University Press Limited.
9. Bangladesh Jatiyo Tottho Batayon, 15 October 2017. (URL; http://sukhairrajapurnorthup.sunamganj.gov.bd/site/page/40ec9277-0757-11e7-a6c5-286ed488c766

Assessment (CNA)

Department of Public Administration
Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet-3114
Questionnaire
On
Implementation process of Food for Work Program at Union level; A study on 3 NO. Tetulia Union, Netrokona
(The questionnaire will be used for research purpose only and your information and answer will be treated strictly confidentially.)

Union Parishade Chireman
1. What role do you play in PIC?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Do you arrange monthly meeting?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3. How a project selected?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. How cash/food grain of FFW handover to union?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. On which basis beneficiaries are selected?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. What problem do you face?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

7. Is there any political biasness in project selection?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

8. Do you visit projects regularly?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

9. Do you have specific remuneration to carry out the project?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

10. Do you have any suggestions for the project implementation?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Union Parishade Member
1. What is your role in PIC?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. How a project selected?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Do you have any role to select the project?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. How laborer is selected?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. How much you pay to the laborer?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. Is there any payment for you to carry out the project?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

7. How UP chairman handover the food grain to you?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

8. Is rules /regulations are followed properly for FFW?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

9. What problem do you face?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO)

1. As the chairman of Upazila Rural Infrastructure Reconstruction And Maintenance Committee, what is your role?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. How the food grains are allocated under FFW program in your Upazila?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. How the amount of money is distributes under FFW program in your Upazila?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Are the meetings held regularly?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

a. Yes ……. No ……… not always ……….

5. Do the members of Upazila Rural Infrastructure Reconstruction and Maintenance Committee attend regularly?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Yes ……. No …..
……………………………..
If not, Please state the reasons.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. Do you visit the projects regularly?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. On which basis the committees select the project?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. Do you think there are any malpractices of FFW in implementation process at union level?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. Do you feel over responsibility?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. Is the project report submitted properly?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
11 How does the committee ensure proper use of allocated resources for the project?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
12. How does the committee ensure the disbursement of due remuneration to the laborer worked under FFW projects?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Project Implementation Officer (PIO)

1. What role do you play in FFW?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. Do you visit the project regularly?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. Is there feasibility study conduct on project proposed by Union Parishade?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4. How often do you visit different project?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. Is there any political pressure to select project?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. What problem do you face?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Beneficiaries

1. Have received any benefit from the FFW program?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
If yes, when and how?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Do you think there is any nepotism to select beneficiaries?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Is there any malpractice you have witnessed in paying remuneration?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Do you think you got fewer wages?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5. What do you prefer, cash or kind?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. What do you prefer, rice or wheat?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Non- beneficiaries/ local teachers, businessman

1. Do you aware of FFW program?
……………………………………………………………………………………
2. Why don’t you involve in FFW program?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Is there any irregulation in FFW programe according to your observation?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
If yes, what?
……………………………………………………………………………………..
4. Do you feel deprived?
………………………………………………………………………………………
5. Was there any signboard visible for ongoing project?
………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. Do you think local representative corrupted in FFW process?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
If yes, haw?
…………………………………………………………………………………
7. Was the project selected with priority and according to local peoples demand?
………………………………………………………………………………………
8. Are the project taken around the living area of UP chairman?