1.1Background of Malaysia
Malaysia comprises of two geographical districts partitioned by the South China Sea, the Peninsular Malaysia or West Malaysia on the Malay Peninsula flanked by Thailand on the north and Singapore in south, and Malaysian Borneo or East Malaysia situated on the northern piece of the island of Borneo in the South China Sea, circumscribing Indonesia and around the Sultanate of Brunei. Thus, the nation imparts likewise sea outskirts to the Philippines and Vietnam.
Moreover, the surface of Malaysia almost have an aggregate zone of 329,847 km², it was marginally bigger than some country such as Norway, or somewhat bigger than the U.S. province of New Mexico. The most top mountain in Malaysia which is Mountain Kinabalu with 4,095 m on the island of Borneo. Therefore, the Mountain Kinabalu and the encompassing Kinabalu Park official site are an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Recently, the population of Malaysia is increasing rapidly through year by year. Thus, Malaysia has a populace of 31.6 million individuals in 2016. The main city of Malaysia and the national capital is Kuala Lumpur. They have many races in Malaysia such as Malay, Chinese, India and etc. They main language which are Malay (official), English, Tamil, and Chinese. (One World Nations Online, 1998)
Lastly, the unemployment rate in Malaysia crawled down to 3.3 percent in April of 2018 from 3.4 percent around the same time as the earlier year. The quantity of jobless dropped by 0.4 percent from multi-year sooner to 510 thousand, while business went up by 2.6 percent to 14.8 million and the work drive rose 2.5 percent to 15.31 million. On an occasionally balanced premise, the unemployment rate additionally remained at 3.3 percent, the same as in the earlier month. The unemployment rate in Malaysia averaged of 3.29 percent from 1998 until 2018, achieving a record-breaking high of 4.50 percent in March of 1999 and a record low of 2.70 percent in August of 2012. (Trading Economics, 2018)
1.2 Background of Singapore
Singapore has a virtual travel manual it is called ” Singapura” which is came from the Malay name for “Lion City” or ” Garden City”. The city-state in Southeast Asia comprises of the island of Singapore and was around 54 littler islands. Thus ,the primary island is connected by a thoroughfare to Johor Bahru on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula.
In addition, Singapore involves a region of 718 km², looked at, it is the littlest state in Southeast Asia, somewhat bigger than one-fourth of Luxembourg or likewise marginally bigger than 3.5 times the measure of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC. The city-state has a populace of 5.6 million individuals, and an inhabitant populace of 3.9 million in 2016. For the language that Singaporean use is almost same with Malaysia such as official dialects are English which is the dialect of organization, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil.
Moreover, the capital and country of Singapore is like a city-state. Therefore, the main island which is Singapore Island ,which is also called as Pulau Ujong. This is the biggest island of Singapore with the most populace with over 5 million people. Other than that, Singapore is a well known for being a worldwide money related focus are shopping heaven, and as a spot for an assortment of exercises, feasting, and stimulation.
Lastly, Singapore’s occasionally balanced unemployment rate crawled down to 2 percent in the March quarter of 2018 from 2.1 percent in the past quarter and in accordance with the starter gauge. It is the least jobless rate since the initial quarter 2016, as cutback declined the most in five years while employments openings dwarfed work searchers without precedent for a long time. Unemployment Rate in Singapore averaged of 2.44 percent from 1986 until 2018, achieving an unsurpassed high of 6 percent in the initial quarter of 1986 and a record low of 1.40 percent in the second quarter of 1990. (Trading Economics, 2018)
2.1CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN MALAYSIA
Unemployment is one of the major economics problems. Unemployment is defined as a person 16 years old or older who is available for work, and has made specific efforts to find work but being jobless for a reference period. There are many causes that make amount of unemployment continue to rise.
First of all, the developments and the invention of new technology affect some workers to lose their jobs. Technology unemployment is also counted as structural unemployment. When some advanced machines are adopted into the productive process, a firm can use the machines to produce the same amount of products or even more than before. This helps the firm to save a lots of labour force. By reducing the usage of labour, the firm also can reduce the wages that counted as cost of production by cutting down the amount workers in that company. Therefore some workers can lose their job in this situation as firm used more machines than labour.
Based on Khairul Azhar, there are few causes that will lead unemployment in Malaysia. The increased of population and growth will lead to higher unemployment rates. Almost every country is facing the same problem in which distributing jobs for all these amount number of worker is difficult. It included the size and rate of growth of the population, the birth rate, the death rate, and migration. The increased population has lead the number of people who are looking for job increased, and this situation will cause the people who are demanding for job is more than the available occupations. According to the World Bank, the data shown that the population of Malaysia is keep up increasing from 30,331,007 and the young graduates are rising as well as the competition will continuously rising. Concurrently, the development of labor rates has slow down and the population and growth increased to 29.7 million.