-380185-37956200The University of FijiSaweni Campus


-380185-37956200The University of FijiSaweni Campus, LautokaAssignment: Research Proposal
Unit Code: EDU314Unit Title: Teaching as a Research and Action
Research Topic:
A Comparison of Assessment Methods used in Year 11 Computer Studies & Year 11 Technical Drawing at Maharishi Sanata College.

Student Name: Rohitesh Asish Kumar
Student ID #: 20180711

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Declaration
I Rohitesh Asish Kumar declare that this piece of work is done by myself. The project proposal has been compiled and also proof read for any plagiarism.

Signature
Name: Rohitesh Asish Kumar
ID Number: 20180711
Date: 03/10/2018

Abstract
The sole aim of this project is to compare the assessment methods used for Computer and Technical Drawing in Year 11 at Maharishi Sanatan College. Three main objectives of this project are to:
Identify the current assessment method used for the two levels.
To describe the weakness and strength.

To recommend alternative methods to improve learning.
The interview would be the main research tool used. Observation can also be done for three terms in order to gain the students ability in the performance criteria. The data would be collected and recorded using nominal scale under research finding. The students’ questionnaire consists of nine questions.
The data collected through the questionnaire would be tabulated and will further presented in graph forms and pie-charts. The results will be analysed, with raw figures and percentages to support the findings and write up a summary of the results.

This research would achieve a number of positive outcomes, the most important of which is that it has raised the profile of courses to be taught should be practical-oriented, as this gauges the students to be as much familiar with a particular topic.
Table of Contents
Content Page #
Introduction 5
Background and Context 6
Aim 7
Research Questions 8 – 10
Definitions Significance of the StudyLiterature Review Research Methodology 11
Research Paradigm 12
Research Design 13
Research Instruments Research Sample Recording and Data Analysis Ethical Consideration 14
Conclusion Timeline 15
Thesis 16
Appendices 17
Questionnaire 18 – 19
Reference 20
1.1 Introduction
Maharishi Sanatan College is semi-urban institution and prepares students for three different external examinations. The students are drawn from around the greater Votualevu area. It is a multi- racial, multi-cultural and co- educational institution. It is a Hindu institution where the management is in the hand of elected committee members from the community.

Maharishi Sanatan College is located in Votualevu areas with a total of 232 students are currently enrolled at the college. There are two streams of year 9, year 10, year 11 and year 12 and one year 13. The college also has got a temple of its own where by students are most welcomed to pray.
This research would be undertaken to study the issues involved in the internal assessment process at Year 11 level with the view of improving the instructional methods and assessment techniques in the learning and teaching of Technical Drawing and Computer Studies. This research project will identify the current assessment methods being used at this level. A comparative study of these assessment methods will be done and its effectiveness and set backs will be looked into.
Currently the results of the stated subjects are satisfactory at this level but to achieve a much better result there is a need to carry out such research. As an outcome of this research, the teachers would be in a stronger position to the ministry’s assessment unit and the moderators at the Year 11 students. The research should identify some areas of attitude change among the teachers and students so that learning and teaching is made more enjoyable and rewarding experience and assessment made more meaningful and transparent as a process.
This paper will also shower light on some assessment methods and hence can lead to the modification of some of these assessment methods. This process will help the teachers and students to make their teaching-learning process more effective and meaningful. Hence, a more favorable result can be expected from the students as far as their learning is concerned. This in turn will create a more student-friendly atmosphere in the school/classroom arena which will make the students excel to greater heights.

1.2 Background of the study
Evaluation is an umbrella term which clarify that it incorporates numerous techniques for social affair confirm about understudy learning. These incorporate perceptions and discoursed, conventional tests and tests, execution assignments and undertakings, and also understudies’ appearance all alone learning.
A few techniques for prove gathering happen while learning is as yet unfurling (developmental appraisal), advising and modify direction. Different strategies happen toward the finish of a course or unit of study (summative evaluation) and survey whether understudies have achieved the expected learning objectives. A few techniques are casual while others accompany high stakes. However, a wide range of evaluation assume a part in forming understanding.
At the point when utilized adequately, appraisal can encourage elevated amounts of understudy accomplishment, as indicated by the creators of Recognizing What Understudies Know. Evaluation enables understudies to learn and prevail in school “by making as clear as conceivable to them, their instructors, and other training partners the idea of their achievements and the advance of their learning.”
Credible appraisal (or execution evaluation) requests that understudies exhibit their learning by making an item or by completing an assignment, execution, or display to indicate what they know and can do. Genuine appraisal mirrors what occurs in reality when researchers, modelers, artists, and others apply them teach based information to tackle credible difficulties. In venture based learning, extends ordinarily finish up with a bona fide execution or introduction. Normally, instructors score legitimate evaluations as indicated by rubrics that characterize quality work or capability as per different classifications, (for example, dominance of key substance, relational abilities, collaboration, et cetera).
Mixed evaluation is a blend of conventional and innovation based appraisals, for example, consolidating paper-and-pencil errands, online assignments, and associate evaluation.

1.3 Aim
The sole aim of this project is to compare the assessment methods used for Computer and Technical Drawing in year 11 at Maharishi Sanatan College. Three main aim of this project are to:
Identify the current assessment method used for the two levels.
To describe the weakness and strength.

To recommend alternative methods to improve learning.
This research will achieve a number of positive outcomes, the most important of which is that it has raised the profile of courses to be taught should be practical-oriented, as this gauges the students to be as much familiar with a particular topic.
1.4 Research questions
What assessment methods are used at your level?
What other methods of assessment which you think would be effective in the teaching-learning process?
Is there a need to modify the assessment methods which are employed at your school?
1.5 Definition of key concepts and terms
Assessment: is where by student’s ability of doing things and where they stand is assessed through the means of exams, practical’s, etc…
Classroom instruction: the lesson content given by the teacher. How things are to be done in classroom.

Accurate: things which are true and specific.

Levels: grades in students fall in example year 1, year 6, etc…
Practical: doing something physically such as making a chair in workshop.

Current: Belonging to the present time; happening or being used or done now.

Comparative: measuring things against other standards
Modification: the action of modifying something, a change made.

Exemplary: extremely good of its type, so that it might serve as a model for others.

Assessing: gauge the understanding of someone (students).

1.6 Significance of the study
The motivation behind this exploration venture is to research the effect of the distinctive strategies for appraisal of Computer Studies and Technical Drawing for Year 11 levels at Maharishi Sanatan College, Nadi. Specifically, it expected to center around the favorable circumstances and inconveniences of the inward evaluation and the outer examination-frameworks in the two subjects right now utilized as a part of the above levels.
1.7 Literature Review
Introduction
Assessment according to the Oxford dictionary means to evaluate student’s work or progress. It is a form of evaluation to gain access of knowledge by students and indicates what level(s) have the students achieved.
I agree with the above statement as assessment is very important, as it keeps the momentum of learning.
Neither excellence nor equity in education can be achieved as long as student assessment instruments, policies and practices limit opportunities to learn and narrow or dilute curricula and instruction.
This study by Horton, C & Bowman B.T (2002) is trying to pursue that excellent results can only be achieved through proper curriculum and instructions. The teachers should try and find out the student’s strength and weakness as this will lead to a more appropriate way of solving student problems and achieving the objectives.

1.7.1 Assessment method used
Assessing student performance can occur over a wide range of ongoing student activities. It has value in formative evaluation where information is gathered that will help determine further emphasis in instruction as well as in summative evaluation where students’ performances are evaluated at the end of a unit, term, or course.
This study by Trumbull and Lash, 2013 is expressing that student assessment is an on going activity. Information is gathered at the end of unit, term, or course, which can provide further evaluation. Student interaction also provides an opportunity to gather student information.

Assessment as a whole is a very important portion in teaching and learning whereby the teacher is able to gauge the student’s performances. By doing this the teacher is able to know the students understanding and at the same time is able to gauge himself/herself.

1.7.2 Weaknesses and Strengths of assessments
For teachers the data collected by the survey can be very handy in a sense that the data will guide the teacher to the point where he/she wants to go, that is make teacher aware of the student’s standard. By doing this not only the teacher but the whole school will be able to know its stand.

Classroom assessment techniques are focusing on aligning assessments more closely with the instructional strategies actually used with children.
This study by Beaton et al., 1996, Black and Wiliam, 1998, is trying to emit is that students are been assessed from all sorts of area that is not only the content to be taught but overall. Example of this could be that an engineering student who is enrolled in automotive mechanic will also be taught tips and bits from programs such as automotive electrical, welding and fabrication, air-conditioning, etc.

Students are also taught on the general behavior, character and attitude which is suitable for school environment. By doing this the student is natured in such a way that he/she is able to fit in the society at any time.

1.7.3 Alternative methods of assessments
When it comes to assessments what comes in mind is that the abilities of the students have and up to which standard. The main objective of any assessment is to see if by doing an assessment the lesson objective is achieved or not. In addition, which type or form of assessment methods is to be employed should be considered. This will play a vital role in effective teaching and learning.

The study by Brown, S., Rust, C., Gibbs, G. (1994) suggests that when choosing assessment type or form the teacher or the facilitator should always keep in mind the lesson objectives and at the same time should be aware of the course content that is what the course wants from trainer to deliver.
Noting in a widely cited review that the term formative assessment “does not have a tightly defined and widely accepted meaning”, Black, P. J., & Wiliam, D. (2009) operate an umbrella definition of “all those activities undertaken by teachers, and/or by students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged”. Along similar lines, Cowie and Bel (1999) define formative assessment as “the process used by teachers and students to recognize and respond to student learning in order to enhance that learning, during the learning”. Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick (2006), who emphasizes the role students can play in producing formative assessments state that “formative assessment aids learning by generating feedback information that is of benefit to students and to teachers. Feedback on performance, in class or on assignments, enables students to restructure their understanding/skills and build more powerful ideas and capabilities.”
1.7.4 Conclusion
Upon going through the research done by the educationists it could be drawn that it is not compulsory to assess students using one form of assessment but various forms of assessments could be employed to enhance teaching and learning. It is also not compulsory to assess once the content is completed, however, continuous assessments can be used to achieve lesson objectives.

Methodology
The research and investigation would be carried out at Maharishi Sanatan College. I will personally go to various streams (four Year 11) and gave out the questionnaires to the TD and Computer students and explain to them what the questionnaire is all about and also about the importance of the research.

Questionnaire for Year 11 Computer students
A total of 15 questionnaires will be given out to the Year 11 Computer students.

Questionnaire for Year 11 Technical Drawing students
A total of 15 questionnaires will be given out to the Year 11 TD students.

Questionnaire for Teachers
A total of 7 questionnaires will be given out to the technical teachers.

Interviews
Personal and informal will be conducted with the Year 11 students.

The questionnaires investigated on the assessment methods used in Year 11. Personal (informal) interviews will also be conducted for comparison purposes. The collection of the questionnaires will be done by the form prefects who will than deliver it to me.

1.8 Research Paradigm
A research done by J Martin Bland and Douglas G Altman on Measuring agreement in method comparison studies explains that an assessment could be used as tool to understand what the students have understood from your teaching. By doing this the teacher can also make a very effective guideline for him/her that is to where to amend and what to bring in the lesson so that students are able to understand the lesson thus objective achieved.
Similar research is portrayed in this research work where by the assessment methods are compared between two subjects. Going through some research work uploaded it is very clear that similar research has taken place by some professionals on the assessment methods and how we can design a standard platform in which teaching and learning will be very effective.

1.8.1 Research Design
Action Research
This action research could be completed taking into consideration the problems faced and analyzing and making conclusions what is to be done that is which area to research on.
To justify that this will be an action research the questionnaires has been designed and interviews would be taken to collect the data and analyze it. Various questions have been placed in the questionnaire to collect the needed information to successfully complete the research.

1.8.2 Research Instruments
Research instruments are tools which are designed and developed by the researchers to assist them in their research work. These tools are used to collect data and analyze those data to reach conclusions.

Some of the research tools which could be implemented are:
Questionnaires
Interviews
Achievement test
1.8.3 Research Sample
This research will take use over the facts and figures accumulated from the provided questionnaires and interviews. The data would be collected through the teachers and students of the two subjects that is Computer Studies and Technical Drawing. Not all the students or the teachers will be given the questionnaires or interviewed. There will a group of students and respective subject teachers who will be taking part in this research.
Once the approval has been taken from the respective authorities the researcher will have to select the right people whom he can interview or distribute questionnaires. Upon collecting the data from the given questionnaires and interview analysis will be made and conclusion would be derived.
1.8.4 Recording and Data analysis
Each respondent’s questionnaire will be analyzed and the response for the respective questions will be summarized, tabulated and graphed accordingly. Some of the personal (informal) interview questions will discussed under analysis and discussion for comparison and clarity purposes.
1.8.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study
Some of the problems that I faced while carrying out the research project were as follows:
Obtaining the questionnaires from all the students.

Late questionnaires delayed the analysis process.
Answers were sometimes confusing so it had to be clarified again, this took time.

It was difficult to assess how many students understood the two assessment systems after my explanation and how it will impact on the outcome of the responses.

Only 7 questionnaires were given out to the teachers, reason being there are 7 technical teachers at the college.
1.8.6 Ethical Considerations
Taking into account the Ethical Considerations, this research will need prior approvals from The Ministry of Education, The College Principal, the teachers involved and not forgetting the core of the research that is the students. The students are the ones who will be able to pour in a bulk of information to complete this research successfully.
Seeking approval from authorities will enable me as the researcher to freely move around and do my level best when it comes to completing the research.
1.11 Conclusion
The purpose of this research project has been to investigate the impact of the different methods of assessment of Computer Studies and Technical Drawing for Year 11 levels at Maharishi Sanatan College, Nadi. In particular, it aimed to focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the internal assessment and the external examination- systems in the two subjects currently used in the above levels.
The data collection for this research was done through questionnaires distributed to 15 Year 11 computer students and the same number of Year 11 Technical Drawing students. The HOD TEST and Computer and five Year 11 teachers were formally interviewed by the researcher. This was followed by a number of informal discussions during the duration of the research.

All the groups co-operated freely and the data collection was done within the time frame. Upon tabulating the results, it was found that all the teachers and the students were in favor of having more of practical’s rather than theory. Looking at the results it seems that students are not much interested in doing paper works for their assessment, they are very much interested in doing practical’s.
From the findings of this research project it has become clear that there is a big gap between Year 11 Computer and Year 11 Technical Drawing assessment methods. The issue of changing or modifying the existing system was also raised. All the students as well as the teachers feel that the assessment methods should be looked at and where necessary modification should take place. This will indeed provide a pathway for better teaching and learning practices to take place hence lead the students to excellence.
1.9 Timeline (Year Plan)
The research would be completed within a span of two years. The allotted time will enable the researcher to accomplish the task successfully with valid reasons, facts and data. The following table will take one over the allocated time for each component of the research. The estimated time to successfully complete this research will be two years.

Content Duration
1.1 Introduction 20 days
1.2 Background and Context 40 days
1.3 Aim of the Study 6 days
1.4 Research Questions 30 days
1.5 Definitions of Key Concepts and Terms 10 days
1.6 Significance of the Study 10 days
1.7 Literature Review 50 days
1.8 Research Methodology 20 days
1.8.1 Research Paradigm (Justification) 30 days
1.8.2 Research Design (Action Research)/Justification 20 days
1.8.3 Mixed Methods Approach/Justification 30 days
1.8.4 Research Instruments/Justification 30 days
1.8.5 Research Sample/Justification 40 days
1.8.6 Recording and Data Analysis 200 days
1.8.7 Establishing quality 20 days
1.8.8 Limitations of the Study 20 days
1.8.9 Delimitations of the Study 20 days
1.8.10 Ethical Considerations 30 days
1.9 Thesis Outline 20 days
1.10 Conclusion 40 days
Appendices 34 days
Reference On going
1.10 Thesis
This bit of research proposition will take us over the certainties and solid things which will drive one to comprehend the significance of time administration for understudies and the impact time administration has on the scholarly execution of understudies. Before the examination could kick begin the specialist needs to draw out the goals of the venture. Once the destinations are laid out different things, for example, target gatherings, where to lead the examination the particular school for this situation, and so forth… earlier endorsements will be a compulsory area of this exploration proposition. It is critical to look for endorsements from the individual specialists and to achieve this task one needs to take endorsements. Once the endorsement has been achieved the examination can begin and will include instructors, understudies and guardians for replying of polls and meetings. While the venture is in progress there could be a few restrictions or deterrent confronted which ought to be noted in the proposition. After dissecting the statistical data points, the examination could be made trailed by the finish of the exploration.

Questionnaire
Topic: Respondents Profile
Age:…………
Gender: ………….

School: ……………………………………………………………………………….

Level: ………………..Topic: Assessment Methods
Question 1: What assessment methods are used at your level?
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1988254311476004000531559500Question 2: How effective are the assessment methods in the teaching and learning process?
4381531166500 Not effective Very effective
Neutral
Question 3: Which assessment method is the simplest one out of the ones given in question 1?
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Question 4: Which assessment method is the most difficult one out of the ones given in question 1?
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Topic: Different Types of Assessment Methods
195516550355500Question 5: List other methods of assessment which you think would be effective in the teaching-learning process
195516529464000355603110470031750254000 Assignments Practical tests
Quiz Oral tests
Question 6: Are the assessment methods for Computer and Technical Drawing in Year 11 different?
355603110470031750254000 Yes
No
Topic: Modification of Assessment Methods
Question 7: Do you think some of these assessment methods should be modified?
Question 8: Give suggestions as to how the assessment methods can be modified.

Question 9: Do you think Internal Assessment should also be included as part of the Year 11 coverage leading up to Year 12?
Reference
National Research Council (US). National Committee on Science Education Standards, ; Assessment. (1993). National Science Education Standards: July’93 Progress Report; a Working Paper of the National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment. National Academies.

Al-Mahrooqi, R., & Denman, C. (Eds.). (2014). Issues in English education in the Arab world. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Westwood, P. S. (2008). What teachers need to know about teaching methods. Aust Council for Ed Research.

Christensen, C. M., & Eyring, H. J. (2011). The innovative university: Changing the DNA of higher education from the inside out. John Wiley & Sons.

Slavin, R. E. (2002). Evidence-based education policies: Transforming educational practice and research. Educational researcher, 31(7), 15-21.

Martinez-Tomas, M. C., Stotter, A. C., Martinez, B. G., Sanjose, V. M., Garcia, C. R., Lozano, J. M., … & Peña, P. L. (2012). AN EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ON-LINE ASSESSMENTS AND FINAL GRADES. In INTED2012 Proceedings (pp. 485-493). IATED.

Palomba, C. A., & Banta, T. W. (1999). Assessment Essentials: Planning, Implementing, and Improving Assessment in Higher Education. Higher and Adult Education Series. Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers, 350 Sansome Street, San Francisco, CA 94104.

Rust, C., Price, M., & O’DONOVAN, B. E. R. R. Y. (2003). Improving students’ learning by developing their understanding of assessment criteria and processes. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(2), 147-164.

Tediamn, D. (2009). Wikipedia Community Grapples with Changes. CNET News, 26.

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