ater added a fourth category


ater added a fourth category, termed disorganized attachment, to Ainsworth’s original tripartite classification. Bowlby acknowledged that feeding facilitates mother-child bond but attachment formation is not merely a function of feeding. Harlow and Zimmermann’s study on monkeys .through the observations in orphanages suggested that infants also need emotional support and contact in addition to food and shelter . This “attachment parenting” is traditionally practiced by mothers through long-term breastfeeding, baby wearing, and co sleeping. This close proximity between the infant and mother can provide an optimal environment for better interactions and attachment.Childs temperament will be determined by mother’s attitude. Responsive mothers are affectionate and aware about their children’s needs. They provide proper physical care and emotional communication to their children as related to their timely needs.During the life span from birth to adolescence a series of changes occur in an orderly sequence which result in the physical, cognitive, and emotional development of child. These developmental changes are age related and take place in a predictable pattern however with personal variation in their timing. Emotional Development is the expression of feelings about self, others, and things. Social development occurs when child learns to relate these feelings to others. Thus emotional and social development is closely interrelated growth patterns hence are often described and grouped together. Besides self concept and self esteem, emotional feelings like trust, confidence, pride, friendship, humour and fear are all parts of social-emotional development. Learning to trust and development of affection to others is a part of social-emotional development. The basic foundation of emotional development and personality development of child is his or her relationship to a trusting and caring adult. When a child has been neglected, rejected, and does not feel secure, he has a difficulty in developing skills to later added a fourth category, termed disorganized attachment, to Ainsworth’s original tripartite classification. Bowlby acknowledged that feeding facilitates mother-child bond but attachment formation is not merely a function of feeding. Harlow and Zimmermann’s study on monkeys .through the observations in orphanages suggested that infants also need emotional support and contact in addition to food and shelter . This “attachment parenting” is traditionally practiced by mothers through long-term breastfeeding, baby wearing, and co sleeping. This close proximity between the infant and mother can provide an optimal environment for better interactions and attachment.Childs temperament will be determined by mother’s attitude. Responsive mothers are affectionate and aware about their children’s needs. They provide proper physical care and emotional communication to their children as related to their timely needs.During the life span from birth to adolescence a series of changes occur in an orderly sequence which result in the physical, cognitive, and emotional development of child. These developmental changes are age related and take place in a predictable pattern however with personal variation in their timing. Emotional Development is the expression of feelings about self, others, and things. Social development occurs when child learns to relate these feelings to others. Thus emotional and social development is closely interrelated growth patterns hence are often described and grouped together. Besides self concept and self esteem, emotional feelings like trust, confidence, pride, friendship, humour and fear are all parts of social-emotional development. Learning to trust and development of affection to others is a part of social-emotional development. The basic foundation of emotional development and personality development of child is his or her relationship to a trusting and caring adult. When a child has been neglected, rejected, and does not feel secure, he has a difficulty in developing skills to s Attachment is a strong emotional bond between the infant and a care giver .It begins early in life and infants show various early attachment behaviours. These include cooing, kicking, gurgling, smiling and laughing. These are the ways of infants to reveal their response and care for the important people in their world. Behaviours like crying and clinging are the attachment behaviours of infants to signal others. From the age as early as one month infants show signs of attachment in the form of anxiety if they are cared for by an unfamiliar person. They may also show distress signs such as irregular sleeping or eating patterns. Separation anxiety is attachment behaviour of infants. Here a child shows distress and becomes unhappy when familiar care giver leaves him or her. It is the most oftenly expressed in the form of crying. The first signs of separation anxiety appear at about six months of age and are more clearly seen by nine months of age. Separation anxiety is very strong by 15 months of age and then gradually weakens. This is normal phenomenon and is called as Deve lopmental Separation anxiety (DSA) Here baby begins to cry for no apparent reason until reunited with her mother. In securely attached children, it begins at 10 to 12 months of age and persists until around the age of 24 months old.Developmentally both separation anxiety and stranger anxiety appear at the time of achievement of object permanence at the age of 2 At this age children develop linguistic skills and start social interaction with other children .Thus gain independence from their parents .Attachment appears to have an important role in the loss of DSA. Separation anxiety may not be an age-appropriate behaviour for an older child, but for 10-to 24-month-old children it is considered a normal part of development rather it is childs healthy adaptation towards emotional development.This is the period of interaction between child and mother during which the psychic structure is formed In, These children would fit into the oral stage in Freud’s theory of development whereas according to Erikson’s psychosocial theory these children are placed in the stage of trust versus mistrust. This trust versus mistrust is most the main issue with separation anxiety. In Piaget’s cognitive theory these children are shown to be in the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development. Thus different psychological theories help in explaining the changes occurring in the child at various ages.Attachment figure’s physical availability is an important factor in the development of secure attachment through hilds appraisal of this availability. It may be a mother or secondary care giver. Thus mother should be physically accessible to the child as and when required. According to Bowlby this lack of accessibility can be through separation or loss. It can be temporary or permanent in nature.Although physical accessibility is important clarified two other important aspects of availability for infant attachment. These are the development of certain beliefs in child’s mind about the open lines of communication with his/her mother and assurance about the positive response of care giver as demanded by the child from time to time. During first two years of life maternal availability is more important as infant has limited understanding about the reasons for maternal absence and the timing. These infants express this separation saliently and hence even those a short duration of separation can

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