BUSE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NAME


BUSE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
NAME : DUMISANI R
SURNAME : MTHETHWA
REGISTRATION NUMBER : B1748809
COURSE CODE : PC004
COURSE NAME : HEALTH
The “ABCDEFG” strategies of HIV transmission preventions are Abstinence, Be faithful, Condom use, Delayed sexual debut, Early treatment of STIs, Free and frank discussions about sex, HIV and AIDS, faith based organisations, Getting real by getting tested. These strategies are fully discussed on how they are applied in the prevention of HIV transmission (spread from one person to the other) as shown below.

Abstaining from sexual activity is the most effective and only certain way to avoid HIV and AIDS, it also prevents sexual transmission of HIV completely Green., Stout., Tailor (1990). HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, this virus causes AIDS and eventually results in dearth if not treated or taken care of. Young people should be encouraged to abstain (don’t engage in sex until they are ready enough) in order to reduce the risks of HIV transmission.

Most HIV infections occur among people in their 20s or older when most start having sex therefore, Zimbabwean schools have introduced HIV ; AIDS education programs which offer knowledge on how to practice abstinence (Ministry of Health ; Child Welfare 2005). The importance of abstinence in eliminating the risk of HIV transmission among unmarried individuals; the messages therefore go beyond abstinence and integrate other behavior change interventions including condom use (Jackson 2002).
Unmarried individuals should delay sexual debut until marriage and adopt societal and community norms that support delaying sex until marriage that denounce cross-generational sex; transactional sex; and rape, incest, and other forced sexual activity Non-penetrative sex is a safe option for HIV discordant and some faith based norms which encourage partners to abstain until marriage.

(Wilton et al. 2016) in their comprehensive study suggested that, realistically if abstinence is advocated then masturbation should be encouraged to make abstinence easier to maintain over time. Avoiding any penetrative sexual activity is another option, masturbation does not involve any penetration and is essentially safe. It can be between two people or undertaken alone for sexual release.
Be faithful (Monogamy) refers to sticking to only one faithful partner or “zero grazing” as it is called in Uganda if it applies to both partners equally is a useful message. Be faithful programs encourage individuals to practice fidelity in marriage and other sexual relationships as a critical way to reduce risk of exposure to HIV Once a person begins to have sex, the fewer lifetime sexual partners he or she has, the lower the risk of contracting or spreading HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (Hatcher et al. 2007). Faithfulness programs should promote the following, The elimination of casual sexual partnerships; The development of skills for sustaining marital fidelity; The importance of mutual faithfulness with an uninfected partner in reducing transmission of HIV among individuals in long-term sexual partnerships; HIV counselling and testing with their partner for those couples that do HIV testing; The endorsement of social and community norms supportive of refraining outside of marriage, partner reduction, and marital fidelity, by using strategies that respect and respond to local cultural customs and norms. The adoption of social and community norms that denounce cross-generational transactional sex; and rape, incest, and other forced sexual activity.
(Evans et al. 2009) agree that Consistent correct condom use reduces the risk of HIV (; other STIs) transmission though the condom efficiency rate is 99.99%, one in 10,000 can be expected to break and let viral particles pass. Although condoms are taken as a personal strategy against HIV, their use is not a perfect solution because it requires people to be highly motivated, always having them available and of good quality hence delaying debut and abstinence are the best.
There are two types of condoms thus male and female condoms. Both are available on the market, but the female condom cost more than the male. Female condoms appear to be highly effective at preventing infection and pregnancy, being made of stronger material than the male condoms and unlikely to tear. Marketing of condoms in an attractive way can increase condom acceptability. Condoms need to be associated in public mind with positive images appropriate to the target group like love, sensuality, fun, sexiness, performance, excitement, safety, trust, care or responsibility. Using condoms is the smallest behavior change to make risky sexual behavior safe hence the knowledge that condoms do not protect against all STIs should be made known (NIAID 2010).

Delaying of sexual debut is an important tactic in HIV prevention among youth. A “delayed” sexual debut means waiting a little longer before you have sex, sexual debut simply refers to when you have your first sexual experience therefore delaying sexual debut results in fewer years at high risk. “Abstinence-only” programs, which promote complete sexual abstinence as the only effective method for preventing unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV, have not been demonstrated to reduce HIV risk behaviors. Recommended instead are comprehensive sexual education programs that include sex education and information on abstinence, delay of sexual debut, partner limitation, condom use, and contraception delayed sexual debut.
Secondary sexual debut is choosing to remain abstinent, even after you’ve already had sex, for a longer period in your life until you feel ready to have sex again with the person you’re comfortable with the reason for waiting to have sex, or having a delayed sexual debut, differs from person to person. Another person might delay their sexual debut because they feel shy or anxious about having sex, either way, delayed sexual debut is about waiting to have sex until you feel ready enough. Everyone should be able to make informed decisions about their sexual life therefore deciding to wait until you’re ready means taking ownership of your body and your future this then reduces the chances of HIV transmission.

The early identification HIV and treatment of STDs could, however, reduce the number of premature deliveries, low-birthweight infants, and neonatal deaths. Early identification due to getting real by getting tested for HIV and AIDS, results in the ability to prevent the transmission of HIV from a mother to a fetus or child through contacts of fluids at birth and breastfeeding respectively. HIV Testing on pregnant woman helps one to know her HIV status and decide on the measures of preventing its transmission and these decision may include caesarean, which is an operation to deliver a baby through its mothers abdominal wall, which reduces the baby`s exposure to its mother`s body fluids CDC (2004) . This procedure reduces the risk of HIV transmission. But is likely to be recommended only if the mother has a high level of HIV in her blood, and if the benefits to her baby outwaits the risk of the intervention.

Frank discussion about sex, HIV and AIDS. Everyone should be able to make informed decisions about their sexual life (Lucas et al 2003). Deciding to wait until you’re ready means taking ownership of your body and your future, respect for sexual rights. (Forhan et al 2009) are of the view that sex should be done on one`s choice rather than force hence, forced sex was declared to be subject to crime (sexual abuse).

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that everyone 13 to 64 years old get tested for HIV at least once and that people at high risk of infection get tested more often Clin Infect Dis (2004). Getting real by getting tested, knowing your HIV status can help keep you—and others—safe hence it is another method of HIV transfer prevention in that, Testing shows that you don’t have HIV or you have HIV and if you don’t have then continue taking steps to avoid getting HIV, such as using condoms during sex and, if you are at high risk of becoming infected, taking medicines to prevent HIV (called pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP).
CDC recommends that all pregnant women get tested for HIV as early as possible during each pregnancy. For HIV positive pregnant woman, there can be measures that can be taken to prevent the transfer of HIV to the fetus An HIV test is available to all pregnant women as HIV can be passed from a pregnant woman to her baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding. If a pregnant women is found to be infected with HIV, treatment with antiviral drugs during pregnancy greatly reduces the risk of passing HIV on to the baby. Early diagnosis is important as it allows you to gain the benefits of earlier treatment, care, have information and support to adopt and sustain HIV risk-reduction behaviors (Fisher et al 2004).

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Pertaining to the discussion above one can conclude that, all these discussed HIV prevention strategies cannot be effective on their own but they depends on the determination and inputs of each individuals on their lives as well as motivations from the elderly, peer education, IEC-posters, prevention pamphlets and HIV prevention programs.

REFERENCES
Berer, M; Rays (1993), Women and HIV/AIDS: An International Resource Book. Harper Collins Publishers. England.

CDC, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Institutes of Health, NIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of American, HIV Prevention in Clinical Care Working Group. Recommendations for incorporating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention into the medical care of persons living with HIV. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:104–21.

Fan, H. Conner, R.F. ; Villarreal, L.P (1994). The Biology of AIDS. (3rd Ed). Jones and Bartlett Publishers. London
Fisher JD, Cornman DH, Osborn CY, et al. Clinician-initiated HIV risk reduction intervention for HIV-positive persons: Formative Research, Acceptability, and Fidelity of the Options Project. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;37 (Suppl 2):S78–87.

Forhan SE, Gottlieb SL, Sternberg MR, et al. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female adolescents aged 14 to 19 in the United States. Pediatrics 2009;124:1505–12
Green, N. P. O., Stout, G. W. ; Tailor, D. J. 1990. Biological Sciences 1, Organisms, Energy and Environment. Cambridge University Press
Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe (2005). Ministry of Health ; Child Welfare.

Jackson, H. (2002). AIDS Africa: Continent in Crisis. SAFAIDS. Harare.

National Institution of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) (2010), HIV and AIDS Information. U.S.A. Washington Post Editorial
Short textbook of public health medicine for the tropics/Lucas A. O, Gilles, H. M London: Arnold publishers, (2003)
Wilton, James; Kain, Taylor; Fowler, Shawn; Hart, Trevor A; Grennan, Troy; Maxwell, John; Tan, Darrell H.S., Journal of the International AIDS Society Article : 2016.

Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL, et al. Contraceptive technology. 19th ed. New York: Ardent Media; 2007.