Distributed Energy Resource Impact On Smart Grid Firdaus Bin Mat Shukri Bachelor of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering


Distributed Energy Resource Impact On Smart Grid
Firdaus Bin Mat Shukri
Bachelor of Electrical Engineering
Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 2600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia.
EC15133
[email protected]

Abstract — Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) terms
concerning this argument include smart grid, distribution system
of the future, and etc. Functionally, a smart grid would be able to
offer new talents such as self-healing, high dependability, energy
management, and time period valuing. From a design view, a
smart grid can expected incorporate new technologies like
automation, communication, advanced metering, distributed
generation, and distributed storage. This paper discussed the
potential impact that problem concerning smart grid will have
on the distribution system.

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I. INTRODUCTION
The Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) is growing as is
that the impact on electrical utility distribution networks.
While DERs are increasing renewable energy with their
gathering of advantages, there are unit several issues utilities
would like challenge to assure eminent management of a
various and distributed energy fusion. The guide covers the
technical capabilities of distributed energy resources that are
unit electric car, demand response, distributed generation and
storage. Short of every resource and technologies with their
own benefit on generate power to the user is shown in Figure1.

Figure 1. The different types of distributed energy resources
II. RESEARCH ON GOVERNMENTAL/ORGANIZATIONAL
SUPPORT OR RESTRICTION
A. Regarding distribution energy resource on smart grid, the
investigation is compatible with requirements of electric
system grid operators and electric utility corporations
whereas helping the loads and needs of electricity
customers. The research is organized as shown below:
1. Short Term management and Advanced Sensing
Modelling within the Distribution Grid
• FEXLAB Pilot test facility
• Multi objective smart inverter control with
micro-sychrophasor data
• VirGIL (Virtual Grid Integration Lab)
2. Resource Coordination Microgrid and Supervisory
Control
• Distributed Energy Resources Customer
Adoption Model
• Microgrid Design Tools
• Microgrid controller depliyment

B. DERs Impact on Distribution System Reliability under
Load Transfer Restrictions.
The integration of distribution systems that is the power
intermittent sources are wind and solar significantly can
increase the complexity of system operation. Therefore, to
properly determine the total of capacity that may be
moved to different feeders a noteworthy procedure is
conferred, taken into consideration the presence of
distributed generation. The results bring general
understandings concerning the advantage of applying
distributed generation to ease load transfer restrictions.
III. STUDY ON THE SETUP COST, OPERATING COST AND
MAINTENANCE COST

Generally, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is
determine reliable and affordable ways for utilities and grid
operators to take advantage of the new ways electricity is
produced, distributed, and used.
The addition research is taking by EPRI into the costs and
advantage of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) to the
systems that are:
1. The Integrated Grid: Realizing the Distributed Power
Resources and Full Value of Central.
Purpose: To modify utility customers to own the same
technology choices from their electrical suppliers as
they’re in alternative areas of their lives.
2. The Integrated Grid; Benefit-Cost Framework

Purpose: Focuses on how the community can take
advantage from all the individual customer choices.
More flexible typical fleet, based on the EPRI’s paper, could:
• Address variation with more competently managing
start times and turndown
• Increase the flexibility suitability and resources by
reducing the inadequacy of probability of capacity
and loss of load.
• Reduces the challenge of steady frequency and
voltage just by having a lot of online generations.
Getting these benefit would require capital investment and
operative budget. Managing operative price is more
straightforward. Receiving a lot of flexibility services from
typical plants can increase labour maintenance and component
replacement costs, costs for increased labour and training of
operators, and increased costs of policy compliance, and etc.

IV. STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES OF DISTRIBUTED ENERGY
IMPACT ON SMART GRID
It is estimated that billions of ringgit will be saved because of
demand response that provide persistent savings, measurable
and need no human involvement or behaviour modification.
That changes dramatically reduced need to build more
transmission lines and power plants.
A smart grid is expects, detects and responds to issues quickly
reduces wide area blackouts to leadership close to zero. The
Smart Grid success central is the ability to securely and
simply accommodate a large kind of generation, from large
centralized plants to little solar panels and everything in
between. All issue in between seek advice from the growing
roster of distributed energy resources that include:

• Distributed generation (DG) – little, widely
dispersed plants, usually in close
proximity to energy loads
• Renewable energy – solar, wind etc
• Energy storage
• Demand response – decreasing
demand rather than increasing supply in
response to peak loads
• Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
When smart grid used, automatically will have positive impact
on the surrounding as well as climate change. Additionally,
electric car produces less carbon monoxide and harmful
substances compared to regular car. Energy produces from
smart grid can also be renewed like solar and wind. It
reducing carbon footprint and claiming a global
environmental claim.
The price of energy will increase. However, future cost
increases will be much smarter after the smart grid. Smart grid
technology, tools and techniques also will give customers with
new options for managing their own electricity consumption
and controlling own utility bill. Smart grid will be more
resistant to natural disasters and attack. It will move us toward
energy independence from outside energy sources, that
themselves is also targets for attack, outside of our protection
and control.
However, the smart grid also has some challenges to create
and maintain, for an example is new infrastructure to
communicate in both directions. For the time being, compared
to create a full system of smart grid, the electricity prices
continue to be low cost. The investment return might take a
few years.
Also may have problems to buy a new electric vehicle. The
system that generates power for the electric vehicle is not
absolutely develop to wide area within the world. Next is
security issues, it should have potentialities to have physical
or cyber-attack since the smart grid development is still new
in this country.

V. STATISTICAL INFORMATION ON IMPACT OF DISTRIBUTED
ENERGY RESOURCES ON SMART GRID.
The electric grid has restricted generation capability, and runs
with a collection quantity of headroom. Some days however
are too taxing on the grid. Additionally to the conventional
demand on the system, a heat wave has everyone turning up
the AC. This demands a lot of electricity, potentially beyond
the system’s capability, at that purpose brown-outs and rolling
black-outs occur.

VI. STABILITY, OPERATIONAL ISSUES, RECENT ADVANCEMENT
IN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY OF SMART GRID
Nowadays, the unity of the grid is itself a problem of national
security. At problem are not only attacks on the power system,
as an example physical attacks but also attacks through the
power system, or cyber-attacks. 70 percent of power
corporation and energy experienced some reasonably severe
cyber-attack to computing or energy management systems.

Ironically, recent technological changes to the grid beside
dependence on unprotected telecommunications networks
may adding to the security problem. Additionally, the
convenience of accessibility to open data sources available via
the Internet may also be putting the infrastructure in risk.

A smarter grid makes security importance from the outset. A
systems approach to electrical power security will establish
key weaknesses, associate verify consequences and assess the
chance of threats of an attack. Flexibility are going to be built
into each element of the system, and the overall system
designed to discourage, detect, respond and recover from
manmade disruptions as well as those from hurricanes and
earthquakes. Planning for man made threats will consider
multiple points of potential failure.

Feed-in Tariff (FiT) has been introduced in Malaysia by
Sustainable Energy Development Authority Malaysia (SEDA)
to buy electricity that generate from renewable energy. It is a
decent development by the government to encourage people to
produce their own electrical supply.

VII. IMPACT TO SOCIETY, CULTURE, GLOBAL AND
ENVIRONMENT
A smarter grid gets that approach by giving consumers the
power to participate and choose. Two-way communication
will produce a dialog between utilities and consumers
enabling consumers to know what electricity they use, when
they use it, and how abundant it price. For the first time,
several will be able to manage their energy costs proactively,
whether that means finance in intelligent, energy saving use
devices or selling energy back to the utility for revenue or as a
means of exercising environmental maintenance.

From the utility perspective, client participation will enable
utilities to enlist client demand as another resource, off setting
the necessity for extra power generation. With consumers
involvement, utilities will be able to facilitate balance supply
and demand and guarantee dependableness. A smarter grid
enables residential customers to possess an equivalent type of
opportunities during this regard as commercial and industrial
customers.

Now more than ever, our nation’s economy depends on
reliable energy. As noted, Smart Grid technologies will
dramatically lessen total fuel consumption and there by
potentially reduce fuel prices for all consumers. Additionally,
a smarter grid creates new markets as private industry
develops energy economical and intelligent appliances, smart
meters, new communications and sensing capabilities and
passenger vehicles.

More specifically, a smarter grid can encourage new market
participants, enabling a variety of new load management,
distributed generation, energy-storage and demand response
choice and opportunities with advanced components and
widespread communication supporting market operations and
providing full visibility of information to any or all, These
contributions are reinforcing the Smart Grid’s economic
benefit by permitting demand to
act as a provide resource recently deferring some large capital
investments in power.

Besides, by using Smart Grid, pollution from carbon
monoxide and dioxide that produce from fuel consumption
that generates electricity and generates vehicles can be reduce.

Obstacles to Further Development or Deployment of
Smart grid.
Lack of Standardization
30 % of utility managers cited “lack of technology standards”
as a significant obstacle to smart grid deployment. Uncertainty
concerning interoperability and technology standards give the
greatest risk to utilities, who do not want to buy components
that will not work with new innovations.
Regulatory Barriers
Numerous of the obstacles to a smart grid are regulatory
issues. Electric power is historically the regulatory domain of
states. The patchwork of regulatory structures and
jurisdictions is simply loosely coordinated, and final authority
on many choice can be unclear, as projects are subject to
multiple levels of review. Local (municipal, county), state-
level, and federal jurisdictions overlap, and conflicting
decisions may end up in regulatory lead times of many years.
Some regulatory decisions may be challenged in court,
resulting in more potential delays at each stage. This series of
delays adds significantly to the value and regulative risk of
pursuing a smart grid project.

As a conclusion, the Age of the Smart Grid is upon us. Huge
amounts of capital are being and can be deployed over
consecutive decade and beyond in upgrading the world’s
power grid. Each the political and financial will appears to be
behind Smart Grid deployment. Fortunes are going to be
create in this arena, and our lives will all be changed for the
better through the intelligent delivery of more efficient and
cleaner energy. What is more, smart grid should be supported
by a smart and secure communications network, power
utilities will have the infrastructure, applications and services
needed to deliver high-quality power safely, non-stop and
with efficiently. In our future work we are going to concentre
the communication platform needs specification of smart grids,
and also the reference design description and criticism.

VIII. REFERENCE
https://docslide.us/engineering/rt15-berkeley-grid-intergration-group-lawrence-berkeley-national-lab.html https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.php?page=electricity_delivery https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/home.jsp https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260508448_Distributed_Energy_Resources_Impact_on_Distribution_System_Reliability_Under_Load_Transfer_Restrictions https://eta.lbl.gov/about-us/organization/groups/gig http://www.utilitydive.com/news/assessing-the-costs-and-benefits-of-distributed-energy-to-the-grid-of-the-f/402515/

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