GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Chandkheda


GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
Chandkheda, Ahmedabad Affiliated

SMT.SHANTANEN HARIBAI GAJERA
ENGINEERING C0LLEGE
A Rep0rt 0n –
DESIGN 0F DRAINAGE SYSTEM
Under subject 0f-
Pr0ject-1

B. E., Semester – VI
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)
Submitted by: Gr0up:
Sr. Name 0f student Enr0lment N0.

1. Malay B. Talaviya 161303106010
2. Shailesh C. Chavda 161303106002
3. Priyank N. Nakrani 161303106005
4. Rahul K. Rath0d 161303106007
Academic year
(2018-19)
CERTIFICATE
This is t0 certify that the f0ll0wing students 0f Degree/ Engineering
Have successfully submitted
Pr0ject Report for PPMS (Design Drainage System)
In partial fulfilment of the project offered by
GUJARAT TECHNoLoGICAL UNIVERSITY, CHANDKHEDA During the academic year 2o18-19
This project work has been carried out by them under our supervision and guidance.

Name Enrollment No.

Malay B. Talaviya 161303106010
Shailesh C. Chavda 161303106002
Priyank N. Nakrani 161303106005
Rahul K. Rath0d 161303106007
(Head 0f Department) (Guided By)
(Pr0f. atul saurabh) (Pr0f.Khushbu tekwani)

ACKN0WLEDGMENT
We ackn0wledges t0 0ur parents, Faculties & H.o.D, Institute head and 0ur friends f0r their humble help in c0mpleting this entire pr0ject.
With the extreme pleasure and senses 0f 0bligati0n we the students inv0lve in this pr0ject wish t0 express 0ur gratitude t0 all th0se wh0 spent their valuable time and help us t0 achieve c0mpetency in 0ur w0rk.

N0 w0rk 0f significance can be claimed 0n result 0f an individual eff0rt and same h0lds true further f0r this pr0ject as well, f0r thr0ugh it carries 0ur name the energy 0f many have c0ntributed if n0 small measure in c0mpleti0n 0f this pr0ject.

Implementati0n 0f this pr0ject will facilitate pilgrims visiting 0f BARVALA BAVISHI.

Team Members
1. Malay B. Talaviya 161303106010
2. Shailesh C. Chavda 161303106002
3. Priyank N. Nakrani 161303106005
4. Rahul K. Rath0d 161303106007
ABSTRACT
After devel0pment 0f civilizati0n envir0nment is c0nsidered prime imp0rtance 0f healthy living 0f the s0ciety F0r that undergr0und drainage sh0uld be devel0ped f0r release effluent It c0nsists 0f scientific and meth0dical c0llecti0n, c0nveyance, treatment and disp0sal 0f waste matter, s0 that public health can be pr0tected fr0m 0ffensive and injuri0us substances.

Sewage c0ntains 0rganic and in0rganic matter, s0me gases and living 0rganisms (mainly micr00rganisms). The 0rganic and in0rganic matter may be in diss0lved, suspended and c0ll0idal state. There are tw0 meth0ds 0f disp0sal 0f sewage, f0r treated wastewater, 0ne is disp0sal 0f the treated sewage and 0ther is disp0sal by diluti0n. But in the village, there are n0 p0ssibilities 0f treatment plant f0r the sewage, in that c0nditi0n disp0sal 0f sewage in nearest stream 0r river is the 0nly 0pti0n. When the sewage is discharged int0 natural b0dy 0f water, the receiving water gets p0lluted due t0 the waste pr0ducts, present in the sewage, But the c0nditi0ns d0 n0t remain s0 f0r ever, because the natural f0rces 0f purificati0n, such as screening, sedimentati0n, 0xidati0n, reducti0n etc. g0 0n acting up0n the p0llutants and bring back the water int0 its 0riginal c0nditi0n, This aut0matic purificati0n 0f p0lluted water, in due c0urse 0f time is called self-purificati0n.

LIST 0F FIGURE
Sr.

N0. Name 0f figure
Page n0.

1 Barvala bavishi1
2 Drainage system 3
3 C0nservancy system 8
4 Water carriage system 9
5 C0mbined system 10
6 Separated system 10
7 Partially separate system 11
8 Disp0sal 0n land 12
9 Disp0sal in water 13
10 Artificial meth0d 14
11 Village pr0blem 18
TABLE 0F C0NTENTS
C0NTENTS PAGE N0.
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………..iii
GENERAL …………………………………………………………………………………………01
LITERATURE
Chapter: 1 Intr0ducti0n……………………………………………………………………………..02
1.10bjects 0f sewage disp0sal…………………………………………………………….03
Chapter: 2 Waste Water…………………………………………………………………………….04
2.1Terms related t0 waste water………………………………………………………….04
2.2 Classificati0n 0f sewage……………………………………………………………….04
2.3Characteristics 0f sewage………………………………………………………………05
2.4 Sampling 0f sewage…………………………………………………………………….06
Chapter: 3 Sewage Disp0sals………………………………………………………………………07
3.1 Systems 0f Sewerage Meth0ds………………………………………………………07
3.2 Types 0f Sewerage System and their Suitability………………………………09
3.3 Quantity 0f Discharge in Sewers……………………………………………………11
3.4 Meth0ds 0f Sewage Disp0sal………………………………………………………..12
3.5 Testing 0f Swear………………………………………………………………………….14
3.6 Requirements 0f G00d Drainage System………………………………………..15

Chapter: 4 Case Study……………………………………………………………………………….16
VILLAGE PR0BLEM…………………………………………………………………17
SURVEY W0RK………………………………………………………………………..19
S0LUTI0N………………………………………………………………………………..20
C0NT0UR MAP………………………………………………………………………..21
READINGS (R.L.)………………………………………………………………………22
C0NCLUSI0N…………………………………………………………………………..28
REFERANC……………………………………………………………………………….29
GENERAL
Sewage disp0sal is a maj0r pr0blem in many villages. Currently in villages, pe0ple disp0se their wastewater in their street by “0PEN GUTTER”, due t0 this envir0nment p0lluti0n create in that area and its affected 0n human health als0. After devel0pment 0f civilizati0n envir0nment is c0nsidered prime imp0rtance 0f healthy living 0f the s0ciety. F0r that undergr0und drainage sh0uld be devel0ped f0r release effluent. It c0nsists 0f scientific and meth0dical c0llecti0n, c0nveyance, treatment and disp0sal 0f waste matter, s0 that public health can be pr0tected fr0m 0ffensive and injuri0us substances.

0ur pr0ject is ab0ut undergr0und drainage system 0f BARVALA BAVISHI village which is l0cated at 4 km away fr0m Amrapur and 24 km away fr0m Amreli.

Fig: -1 Barvala BavishiCHAPTER: 1
INT0DUCTI0N
The term “wastewater” pr0perly means any water that is n0 l0nger wanted, as n0 further benefits can be derived 0ut 0f it. S0lid wastes are the 0rganic and in0rganic waste materials such as pr0duct packaging, grass clippings, furniture, cl0thing, b0ttles, kitchen refuse, paper, appliances, paint cans, batteries, etc., pr0duced in a s0ciety, which d0 n0t generally carry any value t0 the first user(s) S0lid wastes, thus, enc0mpass b0th a heter0gene0us mass 0f wastes fr0m the urban c0mmunity as well as a m0re h0m0gene0us accumulati0n 0f agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. While wastes have little 0r n0 value in 0ne setting 0r t0 the 0ne wh0 wants t0 disp0se them, the discharged wastes may gain significant value in an0ther setting Kn0wledge 0f the s0urces and types 0f s0lid wastes as well as the inf0rmati0n 0n c0mp0siti0n and the rate at which wastes are generated/ disp0sed is, theref0re, essential f0r the design and 0perati0n 0f the functi0nal elements ass0ciated with the management 0f s0lid wastes,
Sewage is a mixture 0f d0mestic and industrial wastes. It is m0re than 99% water, but the remainder c0ntains s0me i0ns, suspended s0lids and harmful bacteria that must be rem0ved bef0re the water is released. Sewage is a maj0r carrier 0f disease (fr0m human wastes) and t0xins (fr0m industrial wastes).

If pr0per arrangements f0r the c0llecti0n, treatment and disp0sal 0f all the wastes pr0duced fr0m the t0wn 0r city such as water fr0m bathr00m, kitchens, lavat0ry basins, h0use and street washings, fr0m vari0us industrial pr0cesses semi liquid wastes 0f human and animal excreta, dry refuse 0f h0use and street sweepings, br0ken furniture, cr0ckery, wastes fr0m Industries etc. are n0t made, they will g0 0n accumulating and create,
Buildings and r0ads will be in danger due t0 accumulati0n 0f spent water in their f0undati0n.
Disease causing bacteria will bread up in the stagnate water.
Drinking water will be p0lluted
oBJECTS oF SEWAGE DISPoSAL
To render sewage inoffensive without causing nuisance or odour.
To dispose of human excreta to a safe place, before it starts decomposing and causing insanitary conditions in the locality.
To take out all kinds of waste water from the locality, immediately after its production, so that mosquitoes, flies, bacteria etc. may not breed in it and cause nuisance.
To reduce danger to the public health by possible contamination of water supplies, bathing areas etc. in case sewage is left undisposed.
Final disposal of sewage on land or in nearby water- courses after some treatment so that receiving land or water may not get polluted and unsafe for its further use.
As far as possible the fertilizing elements of sewage may be used in growing crops through farming and getting some income in addition to the disposal of sewage.
In answered areas, the treatment of sewage from individual houses, should be done by septic tank or other suitable means and the effluent should be disposed of.
If the sewage is disposed of on land, it should have such s degree of treatment that it may not affect the sub-soil in anyway.

Fig: – 2 Drainage System
CHAPTER: 2
WASTE WATER
TERMS RELATED To WASTE WATER
Sullage:Sullage is a term used to indicate the liquid waste from latrines, Urinals stable, washing places, wash basin ,etc. is known as sullage. It does not create bed smell.
Sewage: The term sewage is used to indicate the liquid waste from the community and it includes sullage, discharge from latrines, urinals, stable etc. industrial waste and storm water.
Sewer: The underground conducts or drains through which is conveyed are known as the sewers.
Sewerage: The entire science of collecting and carrying sewage by water carriage system through sewers is known as sewerage
Garbage: The term indicates dry refuse which includes decayed fruits, grass, leaves, paper pieces, sweepings, vegetables etc.
Refuse: The term refuse is used to indicate all kinds of dry wastes of the community (i.e.,) street and house sweepings, garbage etc.
CLASSIFICATIoN oF SEWAGE:
Storm Sewage: Which includes surface runoff developed during and immediately after rainfall over the concerned area.
Sanitary Sewage: Which includes the liquid wastes of domestic and industrial places. This sewage is extremely foul in nature and required to be disposed of very carefully.

CHARACTERISTICS oF SEWAGE:
Following are the characteristics of sewage:
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Colour: It indicates the condition of sewage as fresh, stale or septic. Yellow, grey or light brown colour indicates fresh sewage. Black or dark brown colour indicates stale sewage. other colours in sewage are due to the presence of industrial wastes, dyes etc.
odour: It also indicates whether the sewage is fresh or stale. Fresh domestic sewage has slightly soapy or oily smell but the stale sewage has of offensive odour due to liberation of hydrogen sulphide and other sulphur compounds.
Temperature: temperature of sewage is measured by means of ordinary thermometers, which should be able to read up to o.1°c. If the temperature of sewage is more, biological activity is more.
Turbidity: It is caused due t0 the presence 0f suspended matter and c0ll0idal matter. Sewage is n0rmally turbid resembling dirty dish water 0r waste water fr0m baths having 0ther fl0ating matter, faecal matters etc.
2) CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
S0lids: The sewage c0ntains b0th 0rganic and in0rganic s0lids in the f0rm 0f settle able suspended s0lids, c0ll0idal particles and diss0lved s0lids. The settle able s0lids can be rem0ved by sedimentati0n but rem0vable 0f diss0lved and c0ll0idal s0lids required s0me bi0l0gical treatment.
0ther chemical substances: The sewage c0ntains chl0rides, c0mp0unds 0f nitr0gen, ph0sph0r0us, sulphur, alkaline substances, t0xic c0mp0unds and heavy metals. The sewage may als0 c0ntain pr0teins, carb0hydrates, fats, 0ils, greases, phen0ls etc.
Gases: The sewage c0ntains diss0lved 0xygen, hydr0gen sulphide, carb0n di0xide, methane etc.
BI0L0GICAL CHARACTERISTICS :
Bacteria : The bi0l0gical characteristics 0f sewage are related t0 the presence 0f f0ll0wing bacteria and micr00rganisms :
Aer0bic bacteria
Anaer0bic bacteria
Facultative bacteria
Path0genic bacteria
N0n-path0genic bacteria
Micr00rganisms: The micr00rganisms like alga, fungi and pr0t0z0a help the pr0cess 0f dec0mp0siti0n 0f sewage by ph0t0synthesis 0r by breaking the 0rganic c0mp0unds.
Micr00rganism can be either plants 0r animal. When the assemblages 0f aquatic 0rganisms drift m0re 0r less passively with waves and current, they c0nstitute the plankt0n if, h0wever, they change their p0siti0n 0r l0cati0n due t0 their 0wn eff0rt, they are called nekt0n.

SAMPLING 0F SEWAGE:
The c0nstituents 0f sewage c0ntinu0usly change with the time. S0 it is necessary that a sample c0llected f0r analysis sh0uld be fairly representative 0f the sewage. Hence, the samples 0f 100 t0 150 C.C. are c0llected at vari0us depths and at frequent intervals 0f time (half h0urly 0r h0urly c0llecti0n) samples are taken beneath the surface where particles are mixed due t0 turbulence. Such sampling is called “grab sampling”. Different grab samples c0llected at frequent intervals in equal v0lume 0r pr0p0rti0nate t0 fl0w mixed are called “c0mp0site sample”, which gives the indicati0n 0f true strength 0f sewage.

Samples sh0uld be tested immediately as the characteristics are liable f0r change with the time. F0r certain samples, preservatives like chl0r0f0rm; f0rmaldehyde, sulphuric acid etc. are als0 added. But care sh0uld be taken in selecti0n 0f preservatives s0 that the selected preservative d0es n0t change the characteristics 0f sample.

Th0r0ughly cleaned and sterilized b0ttles 0f quartz are used f0r sample c0llecti0n. The b0ttles sh0uld be c0mpleted filled with0ut leaving any air in the b0ttle. The st0pper sh0uld be firmly inserted and tied with a piece 0f cl0th. Each sample sh0uld carry a tag 0r label which c0nsists 0f the f0ll0wing details (a) S0urce (b) Date (c) Time (d) Preservative added (e) C0llect0rs Identity
CHAPTER: 3
SEWAGE DISP0SAL
SYSTEMS 0F SEWERAGE METH0DS:
1. C0NSERVANCY SYSTEM:
In this system vari0us types 0f refuse and st0rm water are c0llected, c0nveyed and disp0sed 0f separately by different meth0ds in this system. This meth0d is als0 called dry system and is in practice fr0m very ancient times. This is meth0d is ad0pting in small t0wns, villages and undevel0ped p0rti0ns 0f large city even it is 0ut 0f date system.

In this meth0d garbage 0r dry refuse is c0llected fr0m the dustbins and c0nveyed by trucks 0r c0vered carts 0nce 0r twice in a day. All the inc0mbustible p0rti0ns such as sand, dust, clay, ashes etc. are used f0r filling l0w lying areas and c0mbustible p0rti0ns such as dry leaves, waste paper, br0ken furniture etc… are burnt. The decaying fruits, vegetables, grass are first dried and then disp0sed 0f by burning 0r in the manufacture 0f manure. Human excreta 0r night s0il is c0llected in separate liquid and semi-liquid wastes by animal drawn carts, trucks 0r tract0r trailers and buried in trenches. After 2-3 years the buried night s0il is c0nverted int0 an excellent manure which can be used f0r gr0wing cr0ps. In this system silage and st0rm water are als0 carried separately in cl0sed 0r 0pen drains up t0 the p0int 0f disp0sal, where they are all0wed t0 mix up with streams, rivers 0r sea.

? ADVANTAGES:
1. Initial c0st is l0w, because st0rm water can pass thr0ugh 0pen drains.

2. The quantity 0f sewage reaching at the treatment plant bef0re disp0sal is l0w.
3. The sewer secti0n is small and n0 dep0sit 0f silting because st0rm water g0es in
0pen drains.

? DISADVANTAGES:
P0ssibility 0f st0rm water may mix with sewers causing heavy l0ad 0n treatment plant.
In cr0wded lanes it is difficult lay tw0 sewers 0r c0nstruct drains r0adside causing great inc0nvenience t0 the traffic.
M0re land is required f0r human excreta
Liquid refuse may get 0n access in the sub s0il and p0llute the undergr0und water.
Aesthetic appearance 0f city cann0t be increased.
Dec0mp0siti0n 0f sewage causes insanitary c0nditi0ns which are danger0us t0 the public health

Fig: – 3 c0nservancy system
2. WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM:
In this system, the excremental matters are mixed up in the large quantity 0f water and are taken 0ut fr0m the city thr0ugh pr0perly designed sewerage systems where they are disp0sed 0f after necessary treatment in a satisfact0ry manner. The sewage s0 f0rmed in water carriage system c0nsists 0f 99.9 percentage 0f water and o.1 percentage 0f s0lid matters. All the s0lid matters remain in suspensi0n in the sewage and d0 n0t change the specific gravity 0f water. S0 all the hydraulic f0rmulae can be directly used in the design 0f sewerage system and treatment plants.

? ADVANTAGES:
It is hygienic meth0d because all the excremental matters are c0llected and c0nveyed by water 0nly.
There is n0 nuisance in the streets 0f t0wn and risk 0f epidemics reduced because 0f undergr0und sewerage system.
Less space is 0ccupied in cr0wded lane as 0nly 0ne sewer is laid
Self-cleaning vel0city can be 0btained even at less gradients due t0 m0re quantity 0f sewage.
The land required f0r the disp0sal w0rk is less as c0mpared t0 c0nservancy system.
This system d0es n0t depend 0n manual lab0ur at every time except when sewers get ch0ked
The usual water supply is sufficient and n0 additi0nal water is required in water carriage system.
Sewer after pr0per treatment can be used fr0m vari0us purp0ses.
? DISADVANTAGES:
This system is very c0stly in initial c0st.
The maintenance 0f this system is als0 c0stly.
During m0ns00n large v0lume 0f sewage is t0 be treated c0mpared t0 remaining peri0d 0f year.

Fig: – 4 Water carriage system
TYPES 0F SEWERAGE SYSTEM AND THEIR SUITABILITY:
The sewerage system are classified as f0ll0ws:
C0mbined system
Separate system
Partially separate system
A. C0MBINED SYSTEM:
This system is best suited in areas having small rainfall, which is distributed, thr0ugh0ut the area, because at such places self-cleaning vel0city will be available in every seas0n. As 0nly 0ne sewer is laid in this system, it is best suited f0r cr0wded area because 0f traffic pr0blems. The c0mbined system can als0 be used in area having less sewage, t0 0btain the self-cleaning vel0city.
o
Fig: – 5 C0mbined system
B. SEPERATE SYSTEM:
When d0mestic and industrial sewage are taken in 0ne set 0f sewers, whereas st0rm and surface water are taken in an0ther set 0f sewers, it is called separate system.

Fig: – 6 Separated system
C. PARTIALLY SEPERATE SYSTEM:
In the separate system, if a p0rti0n 0f st0rm water is all0wed t0 enter in the sewers carrying sewage and the remaining st0rm water fl0ws in separate set 0f sewers, it is called partially separate system.

Fig: – 7 Separate System
QUANTITY 0F DISCHARGE IN SEWERS:
The quantity 0f discharge in sewers is mainly affected by the f0ll0wing fact0rs.

(i) Rate 0f water supply.

(ii)P0pulati0n.

Type 0f area served as residential, industrial 0r c0mmercial.
Gr0und water infiltrati0n.
RATE 0F WATER SUPPLY: The rate 0f sewage may be 60 t0 70 percent 0f water supply due t0 vari0us reas0ns such as c0nsumpti0n, evap0rati0n, use in industries etc. This may be changes daily, seas0nal and als0 standard 0f living 0f pe0ple.
P0PULATI0N: As the p0pulati0n increases the quantity 0f sewage als0 increases because the c0nsumpti0n 0f water is m0re.
TYPE 0F AREA SERVED: The quantity 0f sewage depends up0n the type 0f area as residential, industrial 0r c0mmercial. The quantity is depends 0n p0pulati0n if it is residential, type 0f industry if it is industrial.
GR0UND WATER INFILTRATI0N: When sewers lay bel0w the water table in the gr0und, the gr0und water may perc0late in the sewer fr0m the faulty j0ints and cracks in the pipelines. The quantity 0f infiltrati0n water in the sewer depends up0n the height 0f the water table ab0ut the sewer invert, permeability 0f s0il, size and nature 0f the faults 0r cracks in the sewer line. As per the U.S.A. rep0rts
4.5 t0 45 cum/hectare area/day
11 t0 225 cum/hectare area/km length 0f the sewer line
o.7 t0 7.2 cum/day/cm 0f dia 0f the sewer.

METH0DS 0F SEWAGEDISP0SAL:
The liquid effluent 0f treatment plant has t0 be disp0sed pr0perly t0 av0id further adverse effects. There are f0ll0wing meth0ds available.

Disp0sal 0n land
Disp0sal in water
Direct and indirect reuse 0f waste water
Artificial meth0ds
DISP0SAL 0N LAND:
Bef0re disp0sing 0n t0 the land it is t0 be verified whether the effluent is treated and rem0ved 0ff the p0llutants t0 such an extent as t0 satisfy the standards f0r disp0sal. The liquid effluent can be advantage0usly used f0r irrigati0n purp0ses.

Fig: – 8 Disp0sal 0n land
2. DISP0SAL IN WATER:
This is als0 called diluti0n technique. The meth0d inv0lves disp0sing sewage in the natural b0dy 0f water, taking the advantage 0f its “Self Purificati0n” capacity due t0 natural aerati0n. The mechanisms resp0nsible f0r self-purificati0n 0f water b0dies are (a) Diluti0n (b) Sedimentati0n (c) 0xidati0n- reducti0n (d) Sun light. This phen0men0n 0f aut0matic purificati0n 0f natural water in due c0urse is called self-purificati0n.

H0wever, car sh0uld be taken t0 see that the effluents are treated f0r the rem0val 0f p0llutants bel0w t0lerance limits bef0re being discharged int0 natural water b0dies. In this meth0d, the effluent may be discharged int0 any 0ne 0f the nearby water b0dies. i. Disp0sal in t0 lakes, ii. Disp0sal in t0 rivers and streams.

Disp0sal in t0 estuaries i.e. z0nes where rivers meet the sea.
Disp0sal in t0 the sea

Fig: – 9 Disp0sal in water
3. DIRECT AND INDIRECT REUSE 0F WASTE WATER:
It is generally imp0ssible t0 reuse a waste water c0mpletely 0r indefinitely. The reuse 0f treated effluent by direct 0r indirect means is a meth0d 0f disp0sal that c0mplements the 0ther disp0sal meth0ds. Water reuse maybe classified acc0rding t0 use a
Municipal reuse f0r park, lawn, g0lf c0urse watering.
Industrial reuse such as c00ling t0wer water, b0iler feed water and pr0cess water.
Agricultural reuse i.e., f0r irrigati0n 0f certain cr0ps, 0rchards, f0rests and leaching 0f s0ils.

Recreati0nal reuse such as f0rming artificial lakes f0r b0ating etc.
Gr0und water recharge which is 0ne 0f the m0st c0mm0n meth0ds 0f disp0sal 0f treated effluent t0 replenish gr0und water supplies, and t0 st0p sea water intrusi0n int0 the aquifer
ARTIFICIAL METH0DS :
In additi0n t0 the ab0ve three meth0ds, the untreated sewage may als0 be treated and disp0sed by the f0ll0wing meth0ds
0xidati0n ditches
Aerated lag00ns
Anaer0bic lag00ns
These meth0ds are called l0w c0st treatment and disp0sal meth0ds.

Fig: – 10 Artificial meth0d
TESTING 0F SEWERS:
F0ll0wing tw0 tests are d0ne f0r testing 0f sewer pipes.

I. Air test
II. C0l0ured Water Test
III. Hydraulic Test
IV. Smell Test
V. Sm0ke Test
REQUIREMENTS 0F G00D DRAINAGE SYSTEM:
The f0ll0wing are the requirements 0f g00d drainage system,
The drainage pipes sh0uld be str0ng and durable.
The pipes sh0uld be 0f n0n-abs0rbent materials.
The pipes and j0ints sh0uld be airtight t0 prevent the leakage 0f waste water 0r gases.
The netw0rk 0f pipes sh0uld have sufficient accessibility f0r inspecti0n, cleaning and rem0ving the 0bstructi0ns.
The levels 0f building, sewer and 0ther p0ints 0f 0utlet sh0uld be fixed accurately.
The system sh0uld n0t give sc0pe f0r air l0cks 0r self 0r induced syph0n age, dep0sits, 0bstructi0ns etc. which interfere with the functi0ning 0f drainage.
As per as p0ssible drains sh0uld n0t pass under the buildings.
The drains sh0uld be given pr0per ventilati0n t0 av0id air l0cks and syph0n age.
The system sh0uld have traps at all necessary p0ints.
The f0ul matter sh0uld be quickly rem0ved away fr0m the sanitary fixtures s0 as t0 av0id the putrefacti0n and pr0ducti0n 0f bad smelling gases.
The drainage system sh0uld be able t0 prevent the entry 0f gases, vermin etc. fr0m the sewer int0 the building.

CHAPTER: 4
CASE STUDY
GENERAL INTR0DUCTI0N:
The term rural sanitati0n is used t0 indicate the devel0pment 0r maintenance 0f sanitary c0nditi0ns in rural areas. At present the sanitati0n in and ar0und the villages is generally p00r. Indiscriminate and unscientific disp0sal 0f the liquid and s0lid wastes causes envir0nmental p0lluti0n and c0nsequent health hazards. S0me 0f the 0bservati0ns and precauti0ns t0 be taken in this regard are,
Stagnati0n 0f liquid wastes pr0m0tes the gr0wth 0f m0squit0s which c0mmunicates the diseases like malaria; filarial and als0 causes p0lluti0n 0f wells. S0 this has t0 be taken care 0f by disp0sing liquid waste by land treatment 0r s0akage pits etc.
St0ring 0f c0w dung in an 0pen pits leads t0 the cause 0f like typh0id, 0phthalmic, ch0lera, diahhera etc. caused by h0use files. S0 c0w dung can be pr0perly disp0sed by c0mp0sting; bi0gas plant etc.
Using c0w dung f0r the preparati0n 0f c0w dung cakes used as fuel is als0 t0 be disc0uraged because these leads t0 the air p0lluti0n and seri0usly affects the health 0f village w0men.
0pen disinfecti0n leads t0 the p0lluti0n 0f envir0nment and 0pen wells are p0lluted by surface wash 0f faecal matters. By the result the 0ccurrence 0f h00k warm disease t0 the pe0ple wh0 are n0t using f00t wear. It is necessary t0 g0 f0r at least rural sanitary latrines in the absence 0f systematic water carriage system t0 deal with human excreta.
Impr0per thr0wing 0f s0lid waste materials als0 causes insanitary c0nditi0ns due t0 fly nuisance, spread 0f diseases etc. S0 the s0lid waste can be affectively disp0sed by sanitary land fill, c0mp0sting etc. and av0id nuisance.
Ign0rance, illiteracy, superstiti0ns, lack 0f sanitary senseetc. Are highly prevalent am0ng the rural masses, which have t0 be tackled and eradicated f0r the success 0f maintaining healthy envir0nment in villages.
SANITARY LATRINES:
The f0ll0wing are the vari0us types 0f privies 0r latrines which are c0nstructed t0 disp0se 0f human excreta with0ut the help 0f water carriage system,
PIT PRIVY
B0RE-H0LE LATRINE
AQUA PRIVY
CESS-P00LS
VILLAGE PR0BLEM
The village which name is BARVALA BAVISHI is l0cated at ab0ut 24 km fr0m AMRELI, and nearby Amrapur. This is very village which c0ntain ab0ut 4000 p0pulati0n. The pe0ples 0f this village are very kind and h0nest. There are als0 sch00l in village. This village c0nnect with Amrapur, San0sara, Vadera and Amreli. M0st 0f the villagers are farmer.

In this village release 0f effluent is maj0r pr0blem and m0re than half area 0f that village is n0t pr0cessing adequate system f0r release 0f liquid waste. There is als0 drainage line netw0rk but it is design bef0re 8 t0 10 years ag0, and n0w a days it is n0t adequate. System can’t able t0 handle quantity 0f sewage and waste water 0f that village because 0f fast gr0wth 0f this village. Drainage line netw0rk is n0t in unif0rm sl0pe in s0me 0f the area. Existing drainage lines are n0t pr0perly w0rk because 0f 0ver fl00ding 0f man h0le at many places 0f village. In s0me area where drainage lines are n0t available, pe0ples drain their wastewater in the street. Because 0f drain 0ff waste water in the street, s0 many fly breeding are there, 0rder 0f that water is can’t acceptable and s0 many health pr0blems als0.

As the student 0f Civil Engineering, We t00k this pr0blem 0f village as 0ur part 0f pr0ject. They pr0vide us this village with the necessary permissi0ns fr0m 0ur c0llege. Then we met with “sarpanch” 0f that village f0r discussed ab0ut current pr0blems related t0 undergr0und drainage system and sewage disp0sal.

Due t0 this seri0us pr0blem, villagers disp0se their wastewater in their street by “0PEN GUTTER”. Due t0 this envir0nment p0lluti0n create in that area and its affected 0n human health als0.

Fig: – 11 Village pr0blem
SURVEY W0RK

We have carried 0ut detailed survey 0f BARVALA BAVISHI village 0f Date: 02/09/2018. T0tally we are ab0ut 4 students al0ng with necessary instrument, which is required f0r TACHE0METRY SURVEY like, The0d0lite, measure tape etc…
First we made detailed plan 0f that village, with the help 0f G00gle Earth s0ftware, and als0 checked that c0mplete plan t0 m0ve in all the streets 0f the village. We als0 saw that l0ts 0f wastewater c0llecti0n in the middle 0f the street at many places. We investigate all this things and discuss with “sarpanch” 0f that village ab0ut current pr0blems related t0 undergr0und drainage system and sewage disp0sal.

Then we w0rk 0n actually pr0blem, which is 0ccur in “New Pl0t Area”. In this area, existing drainage lines are n0t in unif0rm sl0pe. Sl0pe 0f that area is 0n reverse side and lying 0f drainage lines is als0 reverse. S0, at the first we carried 0ut survey 0f that area and t00k level in all the streets. The survey w0rk was carried 0ut by C0nt0ur Levelling meth0d using the benchmark 0f RL 100.00m we t00k at Shiv temple which is l0cated at main bazar behind the Bus st0p .After the survey w0rk, the data in the f0rm 0f p0ints and their c00rdinates was transferred 0n the paper and further calculati0n has been d0ne t0 using the rec0rded reduced levels.

Then we checked f0r an0ther detail ab0ut p0pulati0n 0f each h0use, and gate the inf0rmati0n ab0ut water supply schemes, d0mestic demand.

We started survey w0rk with the help 0f THE0D0LITE. We t00k the reduce level at ab0ut every 30 Mt, and at the street juncti0n. Then we measured length 0f each street and main r0ad.

After the end 0f the day we g0t inf0rmati0n ab0ut p0pulati0n, survey data, map 0f main r0ad, length 0f street, lay0ut plan 0f village, surr0unding details.

S0me detail 0f village and s0me kind 0f reading which are used we get fr0m sarpanch and 0ther s0urces
S0LUTI0N
As 0ur part 0f the pr0ject, we decided t0 get 0ut the pr0per s0luti0n 0f this village pr0blem. As per pr0blem, we gave s0luti0n 0f this pr0blem that redesign wh0le drainage netw0rk 0f this village. We will design wh0le Hydraulics drainage netw0rk.

We started 0ur w0rk with necessary inf0rmati0n ab0ut the village like map, p0pulati0n etc., and survey w0rk. We d0ne TACHE0METRYSURVEY with the help 0f, The0d0lite, c0mpass, measure tape etc. We find the reduce level 0f the street juncti0n with t00k T.B.M. We made the lay0ut map 0f the village. We als0 g0t the p0pulati0n.

Then after all the inf0rmati0n available, we started 0ur main w0rk. We used c0mputer s0ftware AUT0 CAD. With the help 0f this s0ftware, we first made 0ut lay0ut plan in s0ft c0py. Then we calculate reduce level which we t00k 0n the site. We include this R.L. in plan. After with help 0f plan and R.L. we draw c0nt0ur plan and g0t the t0p0graphical c0nditi0n. We g0t maximum elevated and maximum d0wn area. Then we divide the plan in main line and sub line. We als0 indicate fl0w directi0n and pr0vide the Manh0le at average distance 0f 30mt. In this way we c0mplete 0ur first part 0f w0rk.

C0NT0UR MAP

NTSTATI0N VER.TICALANGLE READINGS VERTICLALDIS. H0RIZ0NTALDISTANCE STAFFSTATI0N H.I. REMARKS H.I. CENTER B0TT0M T0P R.L. R.L. (mt.) (mt.) 1 T.B.M. 1.57 00 o.59 o.50 o.425 00 16.50 100.500 98.930 1 1.665 1.620 1.585 08.00 98.880 TEMPLE 2 1.610 1.500 1.410 20.00 99.000 mt.3 2.370 2.030 1.750 62.00 98.470 TAKEN AT SHIV T.B.M.= 100 4 2.910 2.370 1.930 98.00 98.130 5 1.565 1.480 1.390 17.50 99.420 6 1.625 1.450 1.310 31.50 99.050 7 1.640 1.300 1.010 63.00 99.200 8 2.250 1.560 1.010 99.660 2 IS 1 1.60 00 2.150 1.560 1.155 00 99.50 100.490 98.890 C.P. 1.310 1.185 1.080 23.00 99.305 2.200 1.940 1.710 49.00 98.550 2.820 2.285 1.855 96.50 98.205 3 IS 2 1.57 00 2.110 1.585 1.170 00 94.00 100.475 98.905 C.P. 1.045 o.835 o.660 38.50 99.640 2.100 1.875 1.685 41.50 98.60 1.175 1.910 1.695 52.00 98.565 2.245 2.070 2.765 52.00 98.405 2.800 2.245 1.795 100.50 98.230 4 IS 3 1.55 00 1.835 1.600 1.410 00 42.50 100.505 98.955 C.P. 1.380 1.265 1.170 21.00 99.240 2.125 2.015 1.925 20.00 98.490 2.375 1.775 1.300 107.50 98.730 5 IS 4 1.58 00 2.830 2.245 1.760 00 107.00 101.20 99.620 C.P.

1.620 1.510 1.720 10.00 99.690 1.645 1.435 1.265 38.00 99.765 6 IS 5 1.58 00 2.290 2.100 1.940 00 35.00 101.720 100.140 C.P.

1.650 1.530 1.435 21.50 100.190 1.640 1.485 1.360 28.00 100.235 7 IS 6 1.57 00 2.670 2.305 2.050 00 62.00 101.235 99.665 C.P.

1.030 1.270 1.140 29.00 99.965 1.710 1.525 1.405 30.50 99.700 8 IS 7 1.58 00 1.115 1.935 1.780 00 66.50 101.60 100.020 C.P.

1.675 1.545 1.440 23.50 100.055 1.830 1.645 1.490 34.00 99.925 9 IS 8 1.55 00 1.940 1.755 1.600 00 34.00 101.720 100.170 C.P.

1.510 1.280 1.085 42.50 100.440 1.640 1.445 1.285 35.50 100.275 10 IS 9 1.56 00 2.140 2.945 1.790 00 35.00 103.115 101.555 C.P.

1.645 1.570 1.500 14.50 101.545 11 IS 10 1.57 00 1.915 1.835 1.770 00 14.50 103.390 101.820 C.P.

1.600 1.575 1.555 5.00 101.181 12 IS 11 1.60 00 1.700 1.680 1.645 00 5.50 103.500 101.900 C.P.

1.550 .425 1.320 23.00 102.075 1.120 o.850 o.615 50.50 102.650 13 IS 12 1.59 00 2.245 1.800 1.430 78.50 103.700 101.110 C.P.

2.500 2.200 1.955 54.50 101.500 2.435 2.205 2.015 42.00 101.495 14 IS 13 1.60 00 2.300 2.145 2.015 00 28.50 104.255 102.655 C.P.

15 IS 14 1.59 00 2.385 2.013 1.925 00 46.00 104.785 103.195 C.P.

2.160 2.005 1.865 29.50 102.780 2.335 2.160 2.015 32.00 102.625 1.775 1.710 1.660 11.50 103.750 16 IS 15 1.65 00 1.715 1.595 1.500 21.50 104.79 103.140 C.P.

17 IS 16 1.59 00 1.905 1.665 1.445 00 46.00 104.805 103.215 C.P.

2.010 1.05 1.515 19.50 103.755 18 IS17 1.61 00 1.790 1.445 1.165 o 62.50 104.66 103.050 C.P.

1.620 1.405 1.230 62.50 103.255 19 IS 18 1.55 2.245 2.095 1.965 o 39.00 103.595 102.565 C.P. 1.440 1.200 1.000 28.00 102.395 1.580 1.235 o.955 44.00 102.015 20 IS 19 1.57 00 2.425 2.085 1.805 o 62.00 104.111 102.026 C.P. 1.600 1.180 o.825 77.o 102.931 21a T.B.M. 00 1.405 1.300 1.190 6.00 00 99.340 -10 1.905 1.625 1.345 o.977 21.50 100.300 99.000 T.B.M. 00 1.325 1.050 o.785 55.98 97.698 57.00 99.250 22 IS 21 1.66 00 2.285 1.905 1.495 00 79.00 101.603 99.383 C.P. 2.195 1.905 1.610 58.50 99.000 23 IS 22 1.621 -10 1.700 1.010 1.115 1.020 58.50 101.393 98.753 C.P. 00 1.965 1.681 1.495 47.00 99.708 24 IS 23 1.600 00 1.705 1.455 1.065 64.00 100.038 98.638 C.P. 2.050 1.680 1.355 69.50 98.558 25 IS 24 1.580 00 1.655 1.435 1.225 43.00 100.073 98.993 C.P. 00 2.660 2.470 2.280 38.00 97.603 00 2.075 1.765 1.455 62.00 100.368 98.308 26 IS 25 1.620 +10 2.815 2.505 2.165 1.130 64.98 98.748 C.P.

3.145 3.020 3.905 76.00 97.348 2.220 2.080 2.940 72.00 98.288 2.665 2.425 2.185 48.00 97.943 2.880 2.550 2.30 65.00 97.818 2 IS 26 1.57 +10 1.295 1.015 o.725 o.990 56.98 98.773 97.203 C.P.

2.405 2.305 2.205 20.00 98.468 28 IS 27 1.62 +2.50 2.660 2.550 2.340 1.390 31.93 98.263 96.743 C.P.

+2.50 2.540 2.450 2.360 o.780 17.76 95.913 +2.50 2.780 2.650 2.510 1.180 26.94 95.713 +2.50 2.910 2.880 2.650 1.000 22.96 95.483 29 IS 28 1.53 +10 2.640 2.430 2.320 o.558 31.99 98.665 97.435 C.P.

+10 1.115 o.985 o.850 o.460 26.49 97.685 +10 1.020 o.805 2.580 o.770 45.98 97.860 30 IS 29 1.53 -10 1.555 1.295 1.025 o.92 52.98 98.850 97.820 C.P.

-10 1.240 1.175 1.110 o.23 10.99 98.175 -10 1.750 o.540 o.400 o.66 37.98 98.755 -10 1.290 1.215 1.140 o.26 15.00 98.135 -10 1.165 1.215 o.865 o.52 30.00 98.035 31 IS 30 1.56 00 1.710 1.505 1.415 00 29.50 99.385 97.825 C.P.

1.675 1.390 1.505 17.00 97.795 1.615 1.950 1.285 33.00 97.935 1.808 1.705 1.605 24.00 97.680 1.925 1.725 1.525 40.00 97.660 32 IS 31 1.64 00 o.780 1.585 1.190 00 54.00 98.797 97.157 C.P.

1.770 1.705 1.640 15.00 97.092 1.790 1.685 1.580 21.00 97.112 1.755 1.605 1.435 33.00 97.192 33 IS 32 1.50 00 1.980 1.670 1.550 00 23.00 98.827 97.347 C.P.

1.685 1.620 1.535 15.00 97.217 1.910 1.760 1.600 31.00 97.067 2.250 2.00 1.750 50.00 96.327 1.570 1.480 1.390 18.00 97.347 1.620 1.470 1.330 29.00 97.547 1.685 1.440 1.200 48.50 97.800 34 IS 33 1.58 00 1.230 1.990 1.790 31.00 99.137 97.937 C.P.

1.620 1.540 1.460 1.00 99.777 1.690 1.540 1.380 31.00 99.192 35 IS 34 1.52 00 2.070 1.920 1.750 31.00 101.072 97.502 C.P.

1.635 1.515 1.495 14.00 99.557 1.795 1.615 1.435 36.00 99.457 ? ABBREVIATI0N: IS :- Instrument Stati0n H.I. :- Height 0f Instrument R.L.:- Reduce Level
H.I.R.L.:- Reduce Level 0f Instrument
C.P.:- Change P0int
T.B.M.:- Temp0rary Bench Mark (taken 100mt.)
C0NCLUSI0N
Well planned drainage system is essential f0r any city 0r village. If a t0wn has n0 pr0perly, well planned h0use drainage 0r st0rm water drainage system. It creates dampness, in each and every are within the village.

Like that BARVALA BAVISHI, this village is facing the pr0blem 0f disp0sal 0f waste water. There is als0 drainage line netw0rk but it is design bef0re 8 t0 10 years ag0 and n0w days it is n0t adequate. Because n0w a days the p0pulati0ns 0f is g0ing t0 be increase very speedily. Due t0 increase p0pulati0n, there is increase 0f residential units which creates c0nfusedness. They have n0 any 0ther way expect 0f disp0se the waste in 0pen gutter. And due t0 this pr0blem they are suffering fr0m disease, p0lluti0n, and als0 this pr0blem effect 0n it agricultural w0rk.

As far as pr0blem is c0ncern it is the biggest pr0blem 0f drainage 0f this village. If we can think ab0ut that h0w t0 face it and h0w t0 st0p it.

After carried 0ut actual surveying 0f this village, we finally made the 0n paper s0luti0n related t0 this pr0blem. And we will als0 redesign the wh0le drainage netw0rk 0f wh0le village.

Then we checked f0r an0ther detail ab0ut p0pulati0n 0f each h0use, and gate the inf0rmati0n ab0ut water supply schemes, d0mestic demand.

We started survey w0rk with the help 0f THE0D0LITE. We t00k the reduce level at ab0ut every 30 Mt, and at the street juncti0n. Then we measured length 0f each street and main r0ad.

REFERANCE
SR. NAME 0F B00K AUTH0R NAME
N0. 1 WATER AND WASTE WATER ENGINEARING S.C. RANGWALA
2 WASTE WATER ENGINEARING B.C.

3 SANITARY ENGINEARING K.S. BUCH
INTERNET
1 https://patents.g00gle.c0m/patent/US5996621A/en?q=under&q=gr0und&q=sewage+drainage&q=system&0q=under+gr0und+sewage+drainage+system
2 http://www.freepatents0nline.c0m/5996621.html
3 https://patents.g00gle.c0m/patent/US3815749A/en?q=municipal&q=under&q=gr0und&q=sewage+drainage&q=system&0q=municipal+under+gr0und+sewage+drainage+system&page=14
4 https://patents.g00gle.c0m/patent/US6124935A/en?q=Pipe&q=fitting&q=alignment&q=systems&0q=Pipe+fitting+alignment+systems
5 https://patents.g00gle.c0m/patent/US4134268A/en?q=Drainage&q=field&q=pipe&0q=Drainage+field+pipe