Initially


Initially, perceived risk is usually associated with fraud or product or product quality, but today and as a person involved in online behavior, perceived risk is largely related to financial, psychological, physical, or social risks in transactions line (Forsythe and Shi, 2003; Im et al., 2008). Fain and Roberts (1997) explain that risk is a consumer perception, not a product feature. Featherman (2002) states that the key determinant of adoption of e-service is the service’s performance risk (i.e. service-related risks). Wong and Chang (2005) consider that risks generally arise from the uncertainties faced by consumers when they can not expect the consequences of their purchasing decisions. When applying for mobile banking or payments, financial institutions should focus on and consider risks.