INTRODUCTION Health Risks associated with being Underweight Lowered the Immune System Health Risks of Being Underweight will affects children immune system


INTRODUCTION
Health Risks associated with being Underweight
Lowered the Immune System
Health Risks of Being Underweight will affects children immune system. If they are too thin, there is no doubt that there condition would affect the immune system.the immune system would be weaker than children with normal body weight. So, immune system is the protector of the body, which will protect them body from the harmful foreign contaminants.
The immune system needs a fuel to fight against foreign contaminants that try to invade the body. Children with the underweight problem are commonly associated with the lack of nutritions. This condition will put children to the higher risk of budding many diseases, such as cold and flu symptoms and serious medical conditions, such as cancer.

Heart Disease
The underweight children has the potential to have a risk of developing the heart disease, ever since this serious medical condition is commonly occurring in people with obesity or excessive body weight. children who are extremely thin are usually caused by their genetics, which is commonly . The problem is, this ‘lean genes’ might work by placing the fat very deep within the body, such as placing the fat in the liver and the heart. As it is known, when the fats are accumulated in the heart, the possibility of people having the heart disease would be higher too.

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Anemia
The underweight children are more likely to have anemia disease.It is the condition that commonly described whenever the red blood cell production in the body is too low. Since the underweight children are commonly eating lesser food than normal people, there is no doubt that their body wouldn’t get an adequate amount of nutrients that would be very essential to produce the red blood cells, such as iron, folic acids, and Vitamin B12. If the body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells, then most parts of the body would be easier to tired and in over periods of time, anemia would lead them to various life-threatening diseases, such as kidney and heart failure, for example. The symptoms of the anemia including the shortness of breath, dizziness, extreme fatigue, and severe headache.

Growth and Development delays
In underweight children development delays are being observed, especially children under the age of 3 when the brain is rapidly developing. The brain needs nutrients to properly develop. Underweight children may be missing key nutrients due to malnutrition and absorption. That can impact the development of the brain and lead to delays in developmental milestones

Osteoporosis
The underweight children would be more likely to build up osteoporosis. So, osteoporosis is the condition that in which the bone lose its density, which will make the bone become fragile. So, the underweight children could become prone to osteoporosis because they have too little fats in their body. The body fat is totally needed to produce the estrogen , not just in the female children, but also among the male children. estrogen is an essential hormone that would be very beneficial to promote the healthy bones. The thin Children commonly don’t have enough body fats, the possibility of them having the osteoporosis would be higher too, which will make them become injury-prone.

Arrhythmia
Being underweight could also lead to a condition called arrhythmia. Arrhythmia is the condition whenever your heart beats irregularly. This condition could occur because the electrical impulses don’t function properly, which will cause the heart to beat either too fast, or even too slow. This condition is harmless usually, but when this condition interferes with the blood flow, that would be very dangerous for our lung, brain, and many parts of the body.
So, the regular heart rhythm depends too much on the proper intake of potassium, sodium, and calcium inside and outside of the heart muscle cells, there is no doubt that thin people would be more likely to suffer from this condition, because they commonly have the chronic malnutrition.

Muscle Weakness
The muscle weakness would disrupt the ability of our body to regulate the body temperature, which will lead us to the health risk that already mentioned above. Aside from that, the muscle weakness could happen in thin people because the muscles need the proper intake of protein to develop and sustain themselves. Since underweight children commonly don’t have the adequate amount of nutrients, especially protein from the foods, there is no doubt that this muscles weakness could occur. The muscle weakness would lead you to the sudden body weakness and excessive fatigue although you don’t have the intense physical activity.

Pneumonia
There is a possibility that Children with underweight people will be more likely to have the pneumonia disease. So, pneumonia is the infections in one or both of our lungs that caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Children with the body weight that is less than normal weight would have weaker immune system, there is no surprise that they become more prone with various kinds of infections and inflammation, including the infections from the bacteria, fungi and viruses.

Death
This is the most severe health risks that could happen to the people with the problem related to their body weight, whether it is obesity or underweight. Specifically, being underweight means that the body couldn’t have the proper the nutrition that are really essential to make all parts of the body function properly. If child’s body doesn’t have enough nutrition, there is no doubt that the child will suffer from various health complications in the brain, bone, lung, kidney, liver, and heart. As the result, the chance of underweight child to develop the life-threatening disease such as heart disease would be higher than usual, which will cause the death in the future without proper medication.

Health Risks Associated with being Overweight
High Blood Pressure
Every time the heart beats, it pumps blood through the arteries to the rest of the body. A blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg is considered normal. If the top figure is consistently 140 or higher and the bottom figure is 90 or higher, then suffer from high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, and weight gain and age is the common reason for this condition

Heart Disease and Stroke
An increase in BMI, there is also an increased risk for heart disease. Overweight and Obesity leads to the build-up of plaque inside the coronary arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to our heart. Plaque obstructs blood flow to the heart. It may cause or contribute to alterations in cardiac structure and function. The risk of sudden cardiac death as well as a stroke is also increased with obesity. And also increases the risk of high blood pressure and high cholesterol, and both conditions increase the risk of heart disease or strokes.

Sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder in which there are brief pauses in breathing or shallow breaths during sleep. Obesity is one of the leading risk factors for sleep apnea. An overweight child may have more fat stored around his or her neck, making the airway smaller and breathing difficult.

Fatty Liver Disease
Fatty liver disease is common in obese children. In this condition, fat builds up in the liver and causes inflammation or scarring. It can eventually lead to severe liver damage, cirrhosis (scar tissue) or even liver failure.

Reproductive Problems
Obesity and Overweight can cause menstrual issues and infertility in girls and women and erectile dysfunction, low sperm count and other sexual health issues in boys and men.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Xiaohua Ren,et.al(2015)conducted the study among 2617 aged 19-23years with the aim to study the prevalence of underweight,overweight and obesity in the region of Anhui(China).Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated the study revealed that the prevalence of underweight,overweight and obesity among male students were 14.2%,14.7% and 4.2% respectively among female students were 27.5%,2.4% and 0.3%respectively

Diego Augosto Santos Siva,et.at(2015)Conducted the survey among 19,289 school children aged 5-10years of age with the aim to estimate the prevalence of the underweight,overweight and obesity in poor children from Mato Grosso do sul the study showed that the prevalence of underweight was 4.8% among female and 5.6% among male participants.The prevalence of overweight and obesity was respectively 14.8% and 9.1% for female participants and 16.1% and 11.9% for male participant
Silviya Mladenova(2015) conducted the study among 878 school children aged 8-15years of smolyan region,Blugaria.The aim of the study to investigate the distribution of undreweight,overweight and obesity among school children and adolescence.The body weight,Height,waist circumference were measured and BMI and waist circumference were calculated.The study revealed that overweight occurs among 18.8% of the boys and 17.0% among the girls and obesity occurs among 7.6% of boys and 3.7% of the girls.
Bereket Gebremichael,et.al(2015) did a cross sectional study 463 school children from 10 private and 10 public elementary schools.the aim of the survey was to determine the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and its determinant factors.Height and weight were taken and BMI was measured and The study showed the prevalence of underweight, normal, overweight and obesity is 44(9.5%), 360(77.8%), 46(9.9%) and 13(2.8%) respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity showed 7.7% and 3.2% for male and 12%and 2.5% for female respectively.
Askal T,et.al(2014) conducted the study among 845 school children in Ethopia with the objective To assess the Prevalence rate and associated factors of overweight and obesity among primary school children in Ethopia . Overweight and obesity was determined using BMI percentile chart. Socio-demographic and other determinants of childhood overweight were assessed. Data were collected using combination of interview of children and self-administered questionnaire to their parents. The study revealed that The overall prevalence of underweight, normal, overweight and obesity is 44(9.5%), 360(77.8%), 46(9.9%) and 13(2.8%) respectively. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 7.7% and 3.2% for male and 12%and 2.5% for female respectively.

Abdulbari bener,et.al(2006) conducted the survey among 3,923 school children aged 12-17years in Qatar with the aim to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity and BMI of each individiual was calculated. the study revealed that The prevalence of underweight was 8.6%,overweight 28.6%, and obesity was 7.9% , among teenage boys and 5.8%, 18.9%, and 4.7% among girls.
Amit kumar mishra,et.al(2017)conducted the study among 300 school children aged 10-12years in sambhalpur district of Odisha with the aim to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children.BMI was calculated and a questionnaire was also used for the data collection. The study showed the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.3% and 3.3% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among was 5.6% and 3.4% and among girls the prevalence was 7.4% and 3.3% respectively.(8)
Manoja Kumar Das,et.al(2017)the survey was conducted among 5643 school children from 5 to 10 years of age in Delhi-NCR with the aim To document the prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban school children. Anthropometric measurements were taken and BMI was calculated. The study showed Overweight and Obesity in the study population was found to be 6.4% and 2.4% . The prevalence of overweight/ obesity increased with age in both sexes. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased to 15% and 4.9% respectively. Prevalence of under-weight decreased from 33.1% at 5-6 years of age to 25.9% at 9-10 years of age.
Nesamony Maneksh kumari,et.al(2017)conducted the survey among 800 school children from 11-16years of age screened from rural and urban school in south kerela with the aim to compare prevalence of obesity among school children of government and private schools. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. The study showed the total prevalence of overweight and obesity is found to be 4% and 1%, respectively. An alarming incidental finding is that the underweight prevalence is 61%. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity is 4.25% and 1.75%, respectively in private schools, whereas it is 3.5% and 1%, respectively, in government schools. There is not a significant difference between private and government school children.
Swati Gonge,et.al(2015) conducted the survey among 1281 school children aged 10-15years in Pune city Out of 1281 children, 704 were from government schools and 577 were from private schools .the aim of the survey is to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children. Anthropometric measurements were taken and BMI was calculated. The study revealed that the Prevalence of obesity and overweight among children of government school was 2.98% and 8.23% respectively. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among children of private school was 8.83% and 12.13% respectively. Prevalence of both obesity and overweight was found to be maximum in 15 years age group both in Government schools and private schools. The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 5.62% and 9.99% respectively.
Jigna Samir Shah,et.al(2013)conducted a study among 200 school children aged from 10-12 years in Mehasana district with the aim to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity and determine their associated factors among school children. Overweight and obesity were assessed using height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference of each student and BMI was calculated. The study revealed that there were 112 boys (56%) and 88 girls (44%). Only 55 (27.95%) were normal, 55 (27.47%) were underweight, 68 (33.88%) were overweight and 22 (10.67%) were obese.

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