NAME: GITONGA EUNICE MUTHONI
COURSE INSTRUCTOR: D. N. ODABA
COURSE: FIELD RESEARCH
TOPIC: ASSESSMENT OF REFUGEES’ CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL INSECURITY: CASE STUDIES OF UGANDA AND KENYA
1.0 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
The greater Horn of Africa has experienced decades old conflicts which have been regionalized with multiple and varied outcomes to different nations. The ongoing conflicts in Somali and South Sudan are typical examples justifying a trend which has characterized both intra and inter- state relations. These conflicts have produced millions of refugees to the neighboring countries. With the proliferation of armed militia groups and militarization of the regional countries many civilians have found themselves in-between fighting sides causing mass deaths, displacing thousands apart from causing untold sufferings. Refugees are the humanitarian cost of the conflict and most have sought refuge in neighboring countries. (Hassan, 2010)
This Horn region has not been spared of international terrorism which is premised in these conflict zones and perpetrated by armed terror groups who are believed to work in cohorts with refugees in their host countries. International terrorism has gained prominence in this region since the doctrine of Somali and has spread exponentially to other countries in the region causing disastrous socio-economic and political altercations. The presence of refugees in some countries in this region specifically Kenya and Uganda has been linked to insecurity and terrorist activities which this research paper seeks to evaluate. (Abdi, 2010)
1.2 Background Information
According to the convention governing the specific aspects of refugees problems in Africa expanded in 1951, a refugees is any person owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality and is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationality. Insecurity is the state of being insecure or facing instability. Since early 1990’s the issue of refugees has evolved beyond a humanitarian issue and has raised intricate security issues and challenges. Issues of refugees has had long lasting effects on national security of states. Refugees have become a security concern in both developed and developing states of the world. (Campbell, 2006)
This has made states develop growing concerns on the actions to take on refugees within their boundaries who are a protected group under international law. In Africa, the knot between refugees and insecurity is based on two assumptions; that insecurity largely results from elements outside a state’s boundaries and that such elements being militaristic in nature, require a militarized response to solve. This link between refugees and insecurity in Africa has been compounded by two main issues; definition and understanding of a refugee, as well as definition and understanding of Security in the African context. In Africa, the term security is largely state- centric hence it’s likely to be influenced by the political context of individual states. (Campbell, 2006)
Intra- state civil strife in the Horn of Africa has largely been caused by power wrangles, bad governance and economic corruption. The ease of acquiring small arms and border disputes have also been other factors attributed to the influx of refugees in the Horn of Africa. There has been an increase in the number of terror groups operating in the Horn of Africa and this has made many run away from terror propagated in these states especially in Somalia. Currently the greater Horn of Africa has 1.7 million refugees residing within its member states. After the current crisis in South Sudan almost half a million people crossed over to Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia as refugees. Kenya and Uganda accommodate many refugees that have become a threat to security. (Montclos et al, 2000)
Kenyan government has been faced with a dilemma of adhering to its national obligation of protecting refugees against its national obligation of controlling its own security and borders. With the rise of terrorism in the Horn region, Kenyan government has often accused the refugee camps of hosting criminal and terror elements especially from Somalia. Uganda on the other hand is concern of the possibility of refugees fleeing fighting in South Sudan to be in the possession of light and small arms they would use to cause insecurity acts in Uganda. Kenya and Uganda government have made serious claims on the contribution of refuges to insecurity in their states. These phenomena is what this paper seeks to study. (Campbell, 2006)
1.3 Statement of the Problem
With the rising cases of political intolerance and prosecution, natural disasters and intra-state strife continuing to exist in the world, more so in the developing world, there has been continuous existence of refugees. While many refugees have found a welcoming “home” away from home in their receiving states, their stay in the host countries has at times caused concerns among their host. Security concerns of states finds a connection to refugee existence in the greater Horn of Africa in a more recent phenomenon coming to light in the last two or three decades. (Abdi, 2010)
The link between state insecurity and refugees in the greater horn of Africa has been compounded with the rise of terrorism perpetuated by groups like Al- shabaab of Somalia and the newly formed Islamic state that is fast spreading to Somalia. The balance between adherence to international obligations and the need to protect their states and boundaries has become a delicate issue for states around the greater Horn of Africa. Several studies carried out have focused on insecurity in nation states. With focus centrally put on how insecurity can be prevented if not eliminated, limited research has been directed towards evaluating the link between refugees and insecurity in the Horn of Africa. (Hassan, 2010)
1.4 Overall objective
To evaluate the impact made by refugees in regional insecurity using Kenya and Uganda as case studies.
1.4.1 Research Objectives
i. To assess the socio-economic and political impact of hosting regional refugees in Kenya and Uganda.
ii. To establish the effect of hosting refugees on regional security and stability
iii. To evaluate the challenges confronting regional countries hosting refugees in responding to insecurity or terrorism in the region.
1.4.2 Research Questions
i. What is the impact of regional refugees to Kenya and Uganda socio-economic and political landscape?
ii. What is the effect of refugees to regional security and stability?
iii. Which challenges confront regional countries hosting refugees in fighting regional insecurity or terrorism?
1.5 Significance of Study
The state, being the main actor in International Relations, highly features security in its national interest. State security is the ability of a state to secure its borders from foreign invasion and secure the protection of its citizens. A nation is secure to the extent to which it is not in danger of having to sacrifice core values if it wishes to avoid war and is able to challenge to maintain them by victory in such a wave. The significance of studying the topic in question is because security in both Kenya and Uganda has been on threat due to presence of refugees in both states. (Lippman, 2011)
1.6 Justification of the Study
The link between state insecurity and refugees is still a recent development that has not been studied. Developing states have claimed that refugees have contributed to instability and insecurity taking place within their borders however not enough research has conclusively come to this conclusion. Kenya and Uganda have hosted refugees for more than a century and there have been minimal widespread allegations by these states of refugees within their boundaries being threats to state security. However in the recent days, both states have accused refugees of sheltering criminals and terror agents within their ranks. Hence his study is important in understanding the relationship between refugees and insecurity as well as terror generally in the greater Horn of Africa region and particularly in Uganda and Kenya. (Aukot, 2015)
This study is critical in evoking consciousness among readers of the human rights situation of refugees. The study will create a general public awareness of the situation of refugees in Uganda and Kenya. By classifying refuges as a source of insecurity, the government of Kenya and Uganda are likely to justify any action they take against the refugees. For that reason the public will act as a watchdog of the human rights of the refugees to ensure the government adheres to human rights of refugees in any action it takes against them as guided by international conventions and protocols. It will also form a foundation for future researchers who may be interested in studying issues relating to the topic under study. (Aukot, 2015)
1.7 Theoretical Framework
The study will be guided by four theories, namely; the liberal Universalism Theory, Rational Choice Theory, Grounded Theory and Terrorism. These theories recognize the pervasive influence of influx of refugees because they holds the unit of analysis as an individual contemplating state security where the influx of refugees, capable of producing extraordinary political outputs with relatively few inputs as well. (Daveed, 2016)
Liberal Universalism Theory is founded on the basis that all human interest are equal and should therefore be assigned equal consideration. It’s premised on the understanding that all human beings have a moral authority to pursue this interests including his safety and well-being. According to this theory, all states should give equal considerations for the facilitation of the interest of each human being regardless of their identifying characters. In applying the theory to refugees’ rights and protection, the theory portrays concepts of both free human beings and fleeing refugees’ rights. It supports the concept of moral equality of all people on earth. (Campbell, 2006)
Theoretically, a refugee camp within the borders of Kenya and Uganda must follow the laws and customs of both states. In practice, however, refugees establish informal justice systems, largely based on Islamic law. State security can be a logical choice but is it a rational choice? And more tangibly, what meanings can be derived from the action itself with respect to law enforcement, policymaking and ultimately prevention. Terrorism is planned, coordinated and conducted in a logical and “systematic” way. Inversely, it is not random, spontaneous or illogical. By declaring the phenomenon systematic and therefore a rational action and by default terrorists as rational actors, scholars seek to predict terrorists’ preferences and explain why they perpetrate terrorism. But is it better to theorize about how terrorists think or go directly to the source and ask them? The two respective methodologies in these approaches are Rational Choice Theory and Grounded Theory. (Verdirame & Guglielmo, 1998)
Refugees operate under the principles of constrained utility maximization by optimizing the highest possible level of utility, under given restrictions, when the highest overall level of utility cannot be reached. When refugees perpetrate an act of state security, they do indeed want to achieve a specific goal, but are often quite satisfied with coming close. For example, one of the stated goals of the September 11th attack was “bleeding America to the point of bankruptcy.”(Daveed 2011). Under the constrained utility maximization philosophy, al-Qaeda surely wanted more people killed and higher damage incurred, but its message for all intents and purposes was delivered. Proponents cite the “unprecedented nature of the situation” is often what justifies using its approach to studying terrorism. (Daveed, 2011)
2.0 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter aims at addressing the research question which is the effect of hosting refugees and their contribution to regional insecurity referring to the case of Uganda and Kenya. To answer this question, the study will utilize secondary data and examine findings of past related studies, reports and publications on the subject.
2.2 Refugees and Insecurity: The case of Kenya
Without a stable government since the fall of Siad Barre in the early 1990’s, Somalia has become a heaven of Islamic fundamentalists. Fundamentalists were organized and hence were quick to fill the vacuum left by the Islamic courts giving them a comparative advantage over other small factions that lacked resources or recognized ideologies. Many youth were attracted to join the Al- Shabaab fundamentalists due to a myriad of reasons including desperation, religious affiliation and idleness. Today, Al-Shabaab wars have led to thousands of Somali residents fleeing into Kenya as refugees. With these, criminal elements have also crossed over into Kenya and some have set up Al-Shabaab recruitment bases at the camps. They target Kenyan youth for recruitment and use political Islam as a weapon to target non-Muslim populations. (Lodge, 1984)
Security of Northern Kenya has worsened with the influx of refugees. Humanitarian Network Practice notes that travel to that area is now restricted and any organizations visiting the area must be accorded a government pass and police escort. The report takes notes of Islamist militias and armed bandits roaming in the precincts of the camp and the Northern region as a whole. UN mission to the camp operates under stipulated restrictions, always travelling in convoys and escorted by armed police. Humanitarian Network Practice report notes that with the 2010 incursion of Somali and South Sudanese refugees and into the camp. The Northern region has become one of the most dangerous places to operate in, in Africa. (Lodge, 1984)
Lately the report notes, Al-Shabaab faction in the refugee camps have begun targeting refugee officials whom they accuse of cooperating with the police in giving information. Report notes that escalation of insecurity cases among refugee camps in Kenya has prompted humanitarian agencies to scale back on their operations. This has seen many humanitarian officers withdraw from camps, causing a negative effect on security of refugees and host communities. Conflict in the republic of South Sudan has also negatively affected the security of the region and Kenya in general. It has seen thousands of Sudanese flee into Kenya and Uganda as refugees. (Loescher, 2012)
Government of South Sudan has been accused of using local warriors to carry out attacks on Sudanese refugees in Kakuma refugee camp, as well as Turkana people in Kenya. This has led to cases of banditry and theft of animals along the border of Kenya and South Sudan. Flow of refugees from South Sudan has also seen criminal elements fleeing the fighting cross into Kenya with small arms and Light weapons. Since the escalation of South Sudan crisis, refugee numbers flowing into Kenya’s Kakuma camp have more than tripled and with these posing economic and security dilemmas on Kenya. Kenya has been forced to discuss the South Sudan problem in almost every regional block gathering and it hasn’t gone well with the South Sudan who feels Kenya is exerting undue pressure on her and sometimes taking sides on the conflict. (Lohrmann, 2000)
2.3 Refugees and Insecurity: The case of Uganda
Rwandese civil war in 1959 which was closely followed by Burundian unrest of 1960 saw a big number of refugees stream into Uganda. By the close of 2010 Uganda’s neighbors Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan and Kenya had all experienced civil wars and unrest resulting in an influx of refugees in Uganda. This was because of Uganda’s open door policy to refugees which does not restrain refugees to camps but admits them into special settlements where they can farm and fend for themselves. Uganda’s accommodation to refugees from the entire Horn of Africa has not come without challenges to its security and stability. (Mushemeza, 2007)
In the early 1980’s tension arose between Uganda and Rwanda due to Rwanda Refugees in Uganda. The government of Uganda accused Rwandan refugees of sympathizing, assisting and joining the National Resistance Movement. Uganda accused Kigali of using Rwandan refugees inside Uganda for destabilizing Ugandan government and consequently expelled Rwandan refugees from Uganda. In early 1990’s tension arose between Uganda and Sudan over the latter’s behavior over Sudanese refugees hosted in Uganda. Sudan accused Ugandan government of destabilizing the country through the support of Sudan’s People Liberation Army who moved to Uganda as refugees. (Mushemeza, 2007)
Today, the government of Uganda has raised numerous concerns both at the IGAD and AU level on the rise of terror activities resulting from Somali refugees it hosts. Al- Shabaab claims its punishing Nigeria for its interference in Somali’s affairs as Uganda is part of the AMISOM forces in Somalia. On its part however, Ugandan government has accused Somali refugees of harboring terror elements within their midst as well as providing information about Uganda to terrorist elements from Somali who then target and kill Uganda’s citizens. This has made Uganda increasingly selective on the admittance of refugees through its borders and granting of asylum on asylum seekers. (Mwagiru, 1999)
The government of Uganda has claimed a link between refugees from the Horn of Africa hosted in its territory and the rise of acts crime especially in the host communities around refugee camps. Ever increasing land conflicts have been reported between locals and refugees. Uganda has fallen victim to terrorists from Somalia in July 2010 when Al-Shabaab elements protesting over the involvement of the Ugandan military in Somalia, penetrated into Uganda and caused terror attacks in Kampala. This attack led to government crackdown on Somali refugees in Uganda and many were forcefully repatriated. (Mwagiru, 1999)
3.0 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This section deals with the research method that was used in carrying out the research study. The study utilized secondary data inclusive of findings, reports, publications and books. Primary data inclusive of interviews will also be used.
3.1 Classification of Secondary Data
The study used both quantitative and qualitative secondary data. Quantitative data was used to inform the phenomenon under study with past data and re- assess past data sets of figures with the phenomenon under study. Qualitative data was used to inform the current study with thematic and narrative data as well as compare it with past research findings.
3.2 Sources of Secondary data
The study used internal and external sources of secondary data. The internal sources of secondary were obtained from the USIU Africa library, online Publications and Research reports by USIU academic staff, students and affiliated researchers. The external sources of secondary data used were acquired from various reports of organizations and entities like the World Bank, Magazines, Newspapers and Blogs. They were both online and textbook publications.
3.3 Sources of Primary data
The primary data used for this research would be interviews since this is a sensitive topic and also because it is inexpensive. One on one interviews will be of preference to this research. This would be advantageous because I will be able to have total control of the process and also it will be easier to analyze the data I have personally collected.
3.4 Research Design
Data collected will be analyzed and themed in respect to the objectives of the study.
They will be categorized, synthesized and discussed to form various chapters and
sections of the study. Consistency and completeness will be put into consideration in order to ensure validity and reliability.
3.5 Data Presentation
Having studied the issues outlined, considering various qualitative and quantitative secondary data sources, the findings were presented in descriptive narrative form. Sub-themes were built around the findings which fed into building large themes and the findings presented in narration.
3.6 Limitations of Study
In the case of primary data, when conducting interviews one may consume a lot of time and also sometimes the response received may be inaccurate because of inherent bias by the respondents. On the other hand, when using secondary data, some of the limitations includes: Official statistics may reflect biases of those in power hence limiting what you can find out and also official statistics the way they are measured may change over time making historical comparisons difficult.
3.7 Ethical Considerations
I will ensure quality and integrity of my research as well as seeking informed consent. I will also respect the confidentiality and anonymity of my research respondents. I will ensure that my participants will participate in my study voluntarily and I will avoid causing any harm to my participants.
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UNHCR (1951) Convention Relating to the Status of the Refugees, Resolution 2198, Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
UNHCR (1967) Protocol Relating to the Status of the Refugees, Resolution 2198, Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly