NAME


NAME : PATRICIA MARIA
ID : DIT 201804003
IC : 960106565084
COURSE : INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
LECTURE : MS.JANET A/P GABRIEL
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No. Content Page No.
1. A. Identify any TWO (2) types of information system and the hardware that required supporting the information system. Explain in detail.

2. B. Information technology makes people’s life easier; however problem arises due to ethical issue in the society. Identify the common ethical issues arises in the information system environment in hospital regarding information technology and provide solution on how to solve the security issues.

3. C. Information technologies are rapidly replacing traditional technologies on various real time applications. List and explain the various common related disciplines to Information Technology.

4. Conclusion

5. References

6. Plagiarism Report

Introduction
Numerous association works with an enormous number of information. An information system (IS) is a blend system of programming and equipment that an association used to collect, filters, process, create and circulate information. It will likewise transform crude information into helpful data that can be utilized by an association for better basic leadership. Amazon is a quickly developing web shopping which utilizes IS to process budgetary records. There are different kinds of IS available such as Transaction Processing Systems, Decision Support systems, Knowledge Management systems, Learning management systems and Database Management system.

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Tasks
A) Identify any TWO (2) types of information system and the hardware that required supporting the information system. Explain in detail.
i) Transaction Processing System (TPS)
It is data handling framework which is a mix of programming and equipment framework that help exchange process. It is primarily utilized for business transaction. It records, collects, stores, modifies, retrieves, the information exchange for a business to run. Examples of day by day routine exchange are deals arrange entry, payroll and shipping. Transaction preparing framework experiences a five phases cycle which are information passage exercise, document and database preparing, archives and report age and request preparing exercises. It is predominantly intended to process day by day routine of business exchanges. TPS needs to breeze through an ACID test with a specific end goal to quality.
Atomicity Transaction is either total or not in any manner
Consistency The whole database must have a positive value. Transaction that has a negative esteem will be dismissed naturally.
Isolation All transaction must be done at the same time.
Durability At the point when a transaction is done it can’t be fixed once more.

Features of TPS
Rapid response Quick execution
Continuous Availability Continuously accessible whenever when the user is entering the transaction.
Data Integrity The system must have the capacity to deal with all the equipment and programming issues without ruining the information.
Ease of use The system must be basic for the user to comprehend and enable them to amend theirs mistakes effectively.

There are two types of Transaction Processing System
• Batch processing system
All the transactions are gathered together over some stretch of time however not handled immediately. All the preparing happens with no human interaction. If there is any mistake found amid a transaction it will prevent the cluster from processing. It is extremely valuable for an organization utilize finance framework for paying wages to workers. Finance and checks are a few cases of batch processing. The picture beneath demonstrates a case of finance framework.

Advantages of batch processing system
• It controls after some time of handling
• It is institutionalized
• It likewise decrease setup and preparing costs
Disadvantages of batch processing system
• Operational cost may increment
• Takes excessively of time in social affair data, storing and mass preparing
• Only indistinguishable information is prepared in one group

• Real-Time Processing System
It is otherwise called as streaming processing. It is a snappy execution of information in brief timeframe giving a quick output. It includes constant input, process and output of the data. ATMs and traffic control are few cases of real time processing system.

Advantages of real-time processing system
• Brisk react
• Mistake adjustment is done instantly
• Data is prepared as request

Disadvantages of real-time processing system
• Not institutionalized
• Hardware and software of the system are costly
• Requires a reinforcement when there is data defilement

The hardware that is required supporting Transaction Processing System includes:
1. Barcode Reader

It is electronic equipment that can read out printed standardized tag to a computer. It will encode various types of data, for example, patient’s ID, the cost of a thing, website URL. With the assistance of ease scanner, barcode interpreting uses to make an insight information catch data that consistently fits the business work process.

2. Optical Character Recognition

It is an electronic gadget which will change over manually written or printed content into machine encoded content. It is use as a type of data section from printed paper to record the information for example visa report, solicitations, bank statement and mail.

ii.) Decision Support System (DSS)

Decision support system is an information system which helps an organization in decision making activities in any level. It helps individual in settling on choice about issues that quickly changing and not determined. Unstructured and semi-structured decision problems are some normal issues that an organization will face. DSS is a blend of completely mechanized or human fueled system.
DSS consist of 4 phases
1.Intelligence Searching for decision
2.Design Develop an alternative solutions
3.Choice Select an action
4.Implementation Execute the chosen course in decision situation

The hardware that is required supporting Decision Support System includes:
• RAM(Random Access Memory)

It is hardware in a computing device. It is regularly called as primary or main memory device of a computer. It is a form of computer data storage that stores and retrieves and machine code. It is a volatile memory. When the computer is turn off all the data will be lost. Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM (DRAM) are two main kinds of RAMs.

• Hard Disk Drive(HDD)

It is a non-volatile memory hardware device that utilizations attractive capacity to for all time store and recover computerized information. It contain from billions to trillions of bytes of storage. It is an auxiliary storage device. A computer will not function if a hard disk is not installed.

B. Information technology makes people’s life easier; however problem arises due to ethical issue in the society. Identify the common ethical issues arises in the information system environment in hospital regarding information technology and provide solution on how to solve the security issues.

Common Ethical issues:
• Spoofing
It is a sort of scam. It can be done by anyone at any time. The purpose of spoofing is to gain unauthorized access to a user’s system by pretending to be the user. Spoofing likewise alludes to trap or cheat PC system or other PC users. Email, Caller ID, and Uniform Resource Location (URL) are couple of sorts of spoofing. For example a hacker may email parody a user by sending an email as if it originates from somebody whom we trust.

• Hacking
Hacking is an endeavor to abuse into a computer system. In other words, it is an unapproved access over a computer for some illicit purposes. A hacker can be any individual who is a talented computer expert. The motivation behind hacking the system is to take secret data of an organization keeping in mind the end goal to cut down the notoriety of the organization. Once the system has been hacked it will convey a tremendous misfortune to the organization for example deal misfortunes and information misfortune.

• Malware
It is software that can bring harm and damage a computer system.
i) Virus

A virus is a malicious software program which will be actualized into a user’s computer without the knowledge of them so as to perform noxious actions. Viruses are not occurred naturally. They are made by humans. Once a virus is discharge into the system it is not any more under the control of human. Stealing passwords or data, tainting documents and spamming all the email contact are some works of a virus.
ii) Worms

A computer worm is an independent malware computer program that reproduces itself keeping in mind the end goal to spread to other computers. Often, it utilizes a PC system to spread itself, relying on security disappointments on the objective PC to get to it. Worms quite often cause in any event some damage to the networks, even if of just by expending bandwidth, whereas infection quite often degenerate or adjust records on a focused on computer. Many worms that have been made are outlined just to spread and don’t endeavor to change the system they go through.

Method to solve the security issues:
i) Biometric security

Biometric security component used to validate and gives access to a system to view of the programmed and moment confirmation of a person’s physical characteristics. Because biometric security assesses a people substantial components or organic information it is the most grounded and most idiot proof physical security method utilized for recognize check. Biometric security based framework or motors store human body attributes that don’t change over a person’s lifetime. These incorporate fingerprints, eye texture, voice, hand examples and facial acknowledgment.

ii) Firewalls

Firewall is a system security framework intended to keep unapproved access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be actualized as both equipment and programming or a mix of both. Network firewalls regularly used to keep unapproved web clients from getting to private system associated with the internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranets go through the firewall, which inspects each message and hinders those that don’t meet the predetermined security criteria.

iii) Data Encryption

Encryption is the way toward utilizing a calculation to change to make it indistinguishable for unapproved users. This cryptographic strategy secures delicate information for example MasterCard numbers by encoding and changing data into incoherent figure text. This encoded information may just be unscrambled or made meaningful with a key. Encryption is basic for guaranteed and confided in conveyance of touchy data.

C. Information technologies are rapidly replacing traditional technologies on various real time applications. List and explain the various common related disciplines to Information Technology.

I) Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is an Information Technology (IT) worldwide that empowers universal access to shared pools of configurable framework assets and larger amount benefits that can be quickly provisioned with negligible administration exertion, regularly finished the internet. Cloud computing depends on sharing of assets to accomplish intelligibility and economies of scale, similar to an open utility. Outsider mists empower organization to center around their center business as opposed to using assets on PC framework and maintenance. Advocates take note of that distributed computing enables organizations to maintain a strategic distance from or limit in advance IT foundation costs. Proponents additionally assert that distributed computing enables ventures to get their applications up and running quicker with enhanced sensibility and less support and that it empowers IT groups to all the more quicker modify assets to meet fluctuating and capricious demand. Cloud suppliers normally utilize a “pay-as-you-go” demonstrate which can prompt unforeseen working costs if chairmen are not acclimated with cloud-pricing models.

ii) Project Management
Project Management is the utilization of information, skills, tools, and strategies to extend exercise to meet the task necessities. A project is an impermanent undertaking intended to deliver an interesting product, service or results with a characterized starting and end embraced to meet novel objectives and objectives, typically to realize gainful change or included value. The transitory nature of ventures remains conversely with the same old thing which is repetitive, permanent or semi-perpetual useful exercise to create items or services. In rehearse the administration of such unmistakable generation approaches requires the advancement of particular specialized abilities and administration techniques.
There are five phases in project management which will help to simplify the problems into a series of logical and management steps.
1.Initiation Project’s value and feasibility are measured.
2.Planning Solid plan to guide the team and keep them on time and on budget.
3.Execution Building deliverables that satisfy the customer.
4.Monitoring and Control Teams must constantly monitor their own progress.
5.Closure Delivered the finished project to the customer.

iii) Networking

Networking refers to the aggregate procedure of making and utilizing PC systems regarding hardware, protocols and programming including wired and remote innovation. It includes the utilizations of speculations from various advances fields like IT and computer science. A good example of a network is the Internet which connect millions of people all over the world together. They can share data and information. There are three types of network such as Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).

There are few advantages and disadvantages of networking
Advantages Disadvantages
Reduced hardware costs Loss of autonomy
Application sharing Lack of privacy
Sharing information resources Security threats
Data management centralization Loss of productivity
Connecting people

Conclusion

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