Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care


Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care (Adults) for England
Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Soci al Care (Adults) for Wales and Northern Ireland
Specification – Issue 6 – November 2013 © Pearson Education Limited 2013 71

Unit 5: Principles of Safeguarding and
Protection in Health and Social
Care
Unit code: HSC 024
Unit reference number: A/601/8574
QCF level: 2
Credit value: 3
Guided learning hours: 26

Unit summary
This unit is aimed at those working in a wide range of settings. This unit
introduces the important area of safeguarding individuals from abuse. It
identifies different types of abuse an d the signs and symptoms that might
indicate abuse is occurring. It considers when individuals might be
particularly vulnerable to abuse and what a learner must do if abuse is
suspected or alleged.
This is a mandatory unit in both the Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in
Health and Social Care (Adults) for England (QCF) and the Edexcel
Level 2 Diploma in Health and Soci al Care (Adults) for Wales and
Northern Ireland (QCF).
Assessment requirements
This unit must be assessed in accordance with Skills for Care and
Development’s QCF Assessment Principles.
Assessment methodology
Learners can enter the types of evidence they are presenting for
assessment and the submission date against each assessment criterion.
Alternatively, centre documentation should be used to record this
information.

Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care (Adults) for England
Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Soci al Care (Adults) for Wales and Northern Ireland
Specification – Issue 6 – November 2013 © Pearson Education Limited 2013 72
Content
1 Know how to recognise signs of abuse
Types of abuse : physical abuse eg hitting, shaking, biting, throwing,
burning or scalding, suffocating, force-feeding or otherwise causing
physical harm to an individual; sexual abuse eg forcing an individual to
take part in sexual activities or behave in sexually inappropriate ways,
penetrative acts including rape or buggery and non-penetrative acts, eg
watching sexual activities, including viewing inappropriate sexual activity
on the internet; emotional abuse eg bullying, invoking threats or fear,
devaluing individual self-esteem, verbal abuse and swearing, imposing
inappropriate expectations, convey ing feelings of worthlessness,
exploitation; financial abuse eg theft of money or property,
misappropriation or mismanagement of individuals’ finances, denying
individuals access to their own financ es, particularly with the elderly or
individuals with learning difficulties; institutional abuse eg misuse of
authority, information or power over vulnerable individuals by staff in
health and social care settings, failure to maintain professional
boundaries, inappropriate use of medication, physical restraint,
humiliation or bullying, denying privacy; self-neglect eg individuals
engaging in neglectful or self-harming behaviours including refusing to
eat or drink, neglecting personal hy giene or toilet needs, causing actual
bodily harm to self including cutting; neglect by others eg not caring for
the basic needs of individuals includin g neglectful practice in washing,
toileting, feeding or personal care
Signs and symptoms of abuse : physical abuse eg bruising, bite marks,
burn marks, changes in behaviour, ca n lead to death in extreme cases;
sexual abuse eg disturbed behaviour including self-harm, inappropriate
sexualised behaviour, repeated urinary infections, depression, loss of
self-esteem, impaired ability to form relationships; emotional abuse eg
loss of self-esteem and self-confidence, withdrawn; financial abuse eg
loss of trust, insecurity, fearful, withdrawn, conforming or submissive
behaviour, disappearance of possessions, Power of Attorney obtained
when individual is unable to comprehend; institutional abuse eg loss of
self-esteem and confidence, submissive behaviour, loss of control; self-
neglect or neglect by others eg unkempt appearance, weight loss,
dehydration, signs of actual self-harm including cuts, withdrawn or
submissive behaviour
Factors contributing to vulnerability : the individual’s age eg elderly,
young children; physical ability eg frail, immature development, physical
disability or sensory impairment; cognitive ability eg maturity, level of
education and intellectual understanding , learning difficulties; emotional
resilience eg mental health difficulties , depression; stress eg impact of
stressful life events including bereav ement, divorce, illness or injury;
culture or religion eg as a result of prejudice or discrimination, refugees
and asylum-seekers; socio-economic factors eg financial situation; a
setting or situation

Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care (Adults) for England
Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Soci al Care (Adults) for Wales and Northern Ireland
Specification – Issue 6 – November 2013 © Pearson Education Limited 2013 73
2 Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse
Actions to take regarding suspicions or allegations of abuse : including
actions to take if the allegation or suspicion implicates any individual,
someone in the individual’s personal network, the learner, the learner’s
line manager, a colleague, self or others; understanding roles and
responsibilities; importance of following legislation, policies, procedures
and agreed ways of working; basic information includes who the alleged
victim is, who the alleged abuser is, categories of abuse which could be
happening, when abuse has happened, where abuse has happened;
importance of treating all allegation s or suspicions seriously; lines of
communication and reporting; report ing suspicions or allegations to
appropriate/named person; importance of clear verbal and accurate
written reports; importance of not asking leading questions with
individuals concerned; importance of respectful listening; confidentiality
and agreed procedures for sharing information on disclosure; importance
of actual evidence and avoiding hearsay
Ensure evidence is preserved: use of written reports including details of
alleged/suspected abuse, signed, dated and witnessed; use of witness
statements (signed and dated); photographic evidence eg of physical
injuries; agreed procedures for using electronic records eg password-
protected systems; confidential systems for manual records eg security
systems, access to evidence records; importance of timescales to ensure
reliability and validity of evidence; secure storage of any actual evidence
eg financial records
3 Understand the national and local context of safeguarding and
protection from abuse
National policies and local systems : national policies including the scope
of responsibility of the Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA); the
national Vetting and Barring Scheme (VBS); Criminal Record Bureau
(CRB) checks; ‘No Secrets’ national framework and codes of practice for
health and social care (2000); ‘S afeguarding Adults’ national policy
review (2009); work of the Care Qu ality Commission; ‘Working Together
to Safeguard Children’ (2006); ‘Every Child Matters’ (2003); Common
Assessment Framework (CAF); local systems including
employer/organisational policies and procedures and multi-agency adult
protection arrangements for a locality, the scope of responsibility of
Local Safeguarding Children’s Boards (LSCBs), Local Safeguarding Adults
Boards (LSABs) and protection committees; Local Area Agreements
(LAAs)

Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care (Adults) for England
Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Soci al Care (Adults) for Wales and Northern Ireland
Specification – Issue 6 – November 2013 © Pearson Education Limited 2013 74
Role of different agencies: importance of multi-agency and interagency
working; social services eg social workers, care assistants, residential
children’s home workers; health services eg GPs, nurses, occupational
therapists, health visitors; voluntary services eg MIND, NSPCC, Age UK;
the police; responsibilities for allocating a named person usually from
statutory agencies in health or social care; responsibilities for overseeing
the Safeguarding Assessment and its outcome; consulting the police
regarding all safeguarding incidents; convening or chairing strategy
meetings, including the agreement of responsibilities, (lead
professional); actions and timescales; coordinating and monitoring
investigations; overseeing the convening of Safeguarding Case
Conferences; providing information about activities and outcomes to the
Safeguarding Coordinator
Reports on serious failures: serious case reviews on the abuse of
children, young people and vulnerable adults, including eg the Laming
report into the death of Victoria Climbie (2000); Haringey Council report
on the death of Baby Peter (2007); Bedfordshire Council report into the
torture and death of Michael Gilbert (Blue Lagoon murder, 2009);
Birmingham social services review into the starvation and death of Khyra
Ishaq (2010)
Sources of information and advice about own role: current and relevant
sources of information from websites, leaflets, organisations, local and
voluntary groups including government sources eg DfE, DoH; voluntary
organisations eg NSPCC, Barnardos, The Ann Craft Trust; publications eg
‘Working Together to Safeguard Children’ (2006), ‘What to do if you
suspect a child is being abused’ (2003); National Council for Voluntary
Youth Services ‘ Keeping it Safe: a young person-centred approach to
safety and child protection’; information from the Independent
Safeguarding Authority (ISA); Social Care Institute for Excellence;
policies, procedures and agreed ways of working within the workplace
setting
4 Understand ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse
Person-centred values : individuality; rights; choice; privacy;
independence; dignity, respect; partnership
Working with person-centred values : decreasing the likelihood of abuse
by working in a person-centred way; th e key values of privacy, dignity,
independence, choice, rights and fulfilment; decreasing vulnerability by
increasing confidence; importance of empowerment, independence and
autonomy; involving individuals in making their own decisions and
choices; respectful communication; acti ve listening; main principles that
all adults have the right to live their lives free from violence, fear and
abuse, the right to be protected from harm and exploitation, the right to
independence and the right to justice
Active participation : recognising an individual’s right to participate in the
activities and relationships of everyday life as independently as possible;
individual is active partner in own care or support rather than passive
recipient.

Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care (Adults) for England
Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Soci al Care (Adults) for Wales and Northern Ireland
Specification – Issue 6 – November 2013 © Pearson Education Limited 2013 75
Encouraging active participation : decreasing the likelihood of abuse by
encouraging active participation eg in activities an d personal care;
decreasing vulnerability by improving self-confidence and self esteem;
encouraging involvement and self-awareness;
Promoting choices and rights : decreasing the likelihood of abuse through
promoting individual choices and decision-making; decreasing
vulnerability by promoting empowerment and independence; importance
of informed consent
Accessible complaints procedure : importance of an accessible complaints
procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse; transparent policies,
procedures and agreed ways of working; importance of accountability;
clear systems for reporting and recording complaints; robust procedures
for following up on any complaints; legal requirement to have a
complaints procedure in place; ways of ensuring the procedure is
accessible eg published policy, high visibility, widespread distribution
5 Know how to recognise and report unsafe practices
Unsafe practices : poor working practices; neglect in duty of personal
care eg in relation to inappropriate feeding, washing, bathing, dressing,
toileting; inappropriate physical contact eg in relation to moving and
handling; unsafe administration of medication eg failure to check
dosage; unreliable systems for dealing with individual’s money or
personal property eg failure to witness or record accurately; misuse of
authority eg using physical restraint; failure to maintain professional
boundaries eg in relationships; failure to ensure supervision eg for lone
working situations; inappropriat e communication or sharing of
information eg breaching confidentiality; failure to update knowledge on
safeguarding issues eg through ongo ing training; unsafe recruitment
practices eg failure to CRB check work ers; resource difficulties eg staff
shortages; operational difficulties
Actions to take : importance of reporting unsafe practices that have been
identified; reporting concerns to a manager or supervisor immediately,
verbally and in writing; policies on ‘whistleblowing’; if suspected abuse
or unsafe practices have been reported, but no action has been taken,
workers have the right to report concer ns directly to social services or
the police; anyone can report a suspic ion or allegation of abuse; workers
can be disciplined, suspended or di smissed for not reporting abuse and
following the correct procedures; importance of raising genuine concerns
and questioning these; reassurance of protection from possible reprisals
or victimisation following reporting

Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care (Adults) for England
Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Soci al Care (Adults) for Wales and Northern Ireland
Specification – Issue 6 – November 2013 © Pearson Education Limited 2013
76

Learning outcomes and assessment criteria Learning outcomes
Assessment criteria
Evidence type
Portfolio reference

Date
1 Know how to recognise signs of abuse 1.1 define the following types of abuse:
– physical abuse
– sexual abuse
– emotional/psychological abuse
– financial abuse
– institutional abuse
– self-neglect
– neglect by others
1.2 identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with
each type of abuse
1.3 describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse 2 Know how to respond to
suspected or alleged
abuse 2.1 explain the actions to take if there are suspicions
that an individual is being abused
2.2 explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused
2.3 identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is
preserved

Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care (Adults) for England
Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Soci al Care (Adults) for Wales and Northern Ireland
Specification – Issue 6 – November 2013 © Pearson Education Limited 2013
77

Learning outcomes
Assessment criteria
Evidence type
Portfolio reference

Date
3 Understand the national and local context of
safeguarding and
protection from abuse 3.1 identify national policies and local systems that
relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse
3.2 explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse
3.3 identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse
3.4 identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals
from abuse 4 Understand ways to
reduce the likelihood of
abuse 4.1 explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced
by:
– working with person-centred values
– encouraging active participation
– promoting choice and rights
4.2 explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse

Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care (Adults) for England
Pearson Edexcel Level 2 Diploma in Health and Soci al Care (Adults) for Wales and Northern Ireland
Specification – Issue 6 – November 2013 © Pearson Education Limited 2013
78

Learning outcomes
Assessment criteria
Evidence type
Portfolio reference

Date
5 Know how to recognise and report unsafe
practices 5.1 describe unsafe practices that may affect the well-
being of individuals
5.2 explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified
5.3 describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing
has been done in response

Learner name: __________________________________________ Date:___________________________
Learner signature: _______________________________________ Date:___________________________
Assessor signature: ______________________________________ Date:___________________________
Internal verifier signature: ________________________________ (
if sampled )
Date:___________________________