SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING


SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TRADES
114.610 MG6136 DesignDesign Project
Glasses with torch
By : Miraj Solanki
170010609
Supervisor : Muhammad UzairDue date : 09 April 2018
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” Project Design Contract PAGEREF _Toc515197822 h 2
Stake holders PAGEREF _Toc515197823 h 4
Ethical / Cultural Consideration PAGEREF _Toc515197824 h 5
PROJECT PLAN (TIME LINE) PAGEREF _Toc515197825 h 6
Market Product Research PAGEREF _Toc515197826 h 8
Design and selection of LED glasses: PAGEREF _Toc515197827 h 13
Selection criteria PAGEREF _Toc515197828 h 16
Material Selection PAGEREF _Toc515197829 h 18
Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc515197830 h 24
Bill of Materials PAGEREF _Toc515197831 h 25
Costing of Materials PAGEREF _Toc515197832 h 26
Calculation worksheet PAGEREF _Toc515197833 h 27

Project Design ContractPrepared for: Manukau Institute of Technology
Prepared by: Miraj Solanki
Prepared on: 2018
Contract background: Safety glasses that usually protect the area surrounding the eye in order to prevent particulates, water or chemicals from striking the eyes. But in dim light area or dark light location only glasses are not providing clear visibility. So that, in such places, lighted safety glasses provide clear visibility. This project is to design multi functional glasses, which will have minimum production costs.

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Concept Design: Safety glasses with torch are provided to allow clear reading when reader is in dark light location. After thinking numerous design idea, it was concluded that a glasses would offered greatest design scope, which would represent technology and the learning outcomes.

Design Description: This design contract is for a safety glasses in which lighting device is mounted. This design will be simple, multi functional, durable.

Design Specification: The design will meet the following specifications-
With built-in LED lights,
convenient hands-free lighting  
an easy on/off switch to save battery life
Meets ANSI Z87.1 standards
Easy on/off switch
Manufactured out of Polycarbonate
Durable
Light weight
Cost effectiveStake holdersThere are two types of stakeholders – Internal stakeholders and External stakeholders.

Internal Stakeholders are groups or individuals people who work inside the association.

Employees: Employees are the people who work for the organisation for compensations. For example, design team, skilled worker etc.

Manager: The Individuals who play the role of managing the entire work of company.

Owners: The group or individual who possesses the company.

External stakeholders are the people that don’t belong to organization but are impacted by or impact performance of company.

Suppliers: They supplies input like raw materials, equipment’s and so on to the company.

Customers: The people who buy product for business and personal use.

Government: A firm is guided and controlled by guidelines and directions like it needs to pay charges and responsibilities that are demanded on the business.

Ethical / Cultural ConsiderationFor adaption of product in market, the understanding of cultural and moral consideration is an essential part of design.

Product could not dangerous for environment.

Product is safe to use for all people and will be not harmful for other creatures.

Product could not be hurting any religion and their beliefs.

PROJECT PLAN (TIME LINE)
Project Timeline Chart
week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 Week 13 Week 14 Week 15
No. Task Start Finish 26-2-18 5-3-18 12-3-18 19-3-18 26-3-18 2-4-18 9-4-18 16-4-18 23-4-18 30-4-18 7-5-18 14-5-18 21-5-18 28-5-18 4-6-18
1 Title 26-2-18 5-3-18 2 Stake holders 5-3-18 12-3-18 3 Customer needs 12-3-18 19-3-18 4 Research and Concept 19-3-18 26-3-18 5 Selection Criteria 26-3-18 2-4-18 6 Detailed Design and CAD Drawing 2-4-18 9-4-18 7 Assemble and Testing 30-4-18 7-5-18 8 Design Modification 14-5-18 21-5-18 9 Presentation 21-5-18 28-5-18 Market Product ResearchLED Safety glasses

Description
2 built-in LED lights (batteries included).
Polycarbonate frame with non-slip nose bridge.
Integral side shields.
Clear anti-scratch, anti-fog and anti-static lens.
Cost: 27$ NZD
Weight: .1 lbs
CITATION Bolnd l 1033 (Bolle Galaxy LED Safety Glasses, n.d.)Bad points of design 1:
Cost of glasses are high. There is no UV A/B/C protection which is essential for eyes safety. Limited battery life, so batteries have to be replaced frequently.

Pyramex Pivoting LED Safety Glasses

Description
Built-in rubber nose piece.

Rubber temple tips keep eyewear secure for the active worker.

The L1154 alkaline batteries provides up to 50 hours of use before replacing.

Easy to use push button on/off switches are located at the top of each temple.

Scratch resistant polycarbonate lens provides 99% UVA/B/C protection
The super bright pivoting LED (3 lumens per side) help you to see in dark places while keeping your hands free to do other task.

Weight: .3 lbs
Cost: 19$ NZD
CITATION Pyrnd l 1033 (Pyramex Pivoting LED Safety Glasses , n.d.)Bad Points of Design 2:
Product weight is high. These glasses are not useful for reading. Also Limited battery life, so batteries have to be replaced frequently.

Rechargeable LED Reading Glasses

Description
Frames: Polycarbonate
Lenses: CP
Light Output: 12 Lumens
Battery type: Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries
Battery Life: 4 Hours (Recharge time 2.5 Hours)
Cost : 69$ NZD
CITATION LIGnd l 1033 (LIGHTSPECS Men’s Rechargeable LED Reading Glasses, n.d.)Bad Points of Design 3:
These types of glasses are expensive. Battery life of this product is very low so the battery needs to be recharged at regular intervals after consumption. Moreover, this glasses are not used on outer work place.

Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Selection
Criteria DESIGN-1
DESIGN-2 DESIGN-3
Relative Score Rank Total
Score Rank Total
Score Rank Total
Score
1. Cost 10 3 30 5 50 1 10
2. UV Protection 8 5 40 5 40 1 8
3. Durability 9 3 27 4 36 – –
4. Battery Life 5 1 5 3 15 5 25
5. Weight 10 5 50 3 50 1 10
6. Design 8 3 24 5 40 3 24
7. Resistance features
(Anti scratch and anti fog, impact-resistance) 8 5 40 3 27 1 8

Total 216 258 85
Rank 5: Very Good
Rank 3: Good
Rank 1: Very poor
Design and selection of LED glasses:Here are three designs of glasses with torch and their considerable parameters;
Design 1: In such glasses, light sources can be placed between frames and can change as per need, mostly this kind of glasses used for reading purpose and in medical where light can be adjusted easily.

16573513093701765935852170
Frame Light at Middle
Design 2: In this figure photocell is placed in middle of the glasses which is used for auto brightness of the light. This photocell is connected with both side light. This type of glasses is used by technical people such as welder, plumber, electrician etc. during various operation. Also design of the glasses is modern so this can be used for daily purpose.

1657358068240030228996777320016459199144000085096187974300
Frame
PhotocellLight
Light
When object is close to the glasses the brightness of the light comes down automatically, so that power consumption reduced by this type glasses.

Design 3: In this kind of glasses two led are placed inside the frame on both side end. This type glasses design looks like simple and it is not so heavy in weight so can be used for fashion statement.

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Inside Light Frame that cover surrounding area of eye
Selection criteriaCriteria Requirement of the design Relative score
(scale 1 to 5)
1. Cost More cost to less cost 5
2. Appearance Less attractive to more attractive 5
3. Durability Less preferable to most preferable 3
4. Multifunctional Less preferable to more preferable 4
5. Weight More weight to less 2
6. Comfort Less comfort to more 3
7. Safety Least desire to most 5
Selection
Criteria DESIGN-1
DESIGN-2 DESIGN-3
Relative
Score Rank Total Rank Total
Rank Total
Score
1. Cost 5 4 20 3 15 4 20
2. Appearance 5 3 15 5 25 4 20
3. Durability 3 2 6 4 12 3 9
4. Multifunctional 4 3 12 4 16 3 12
5. Weight 2 2 4 3 6 2 4
6. Comfort 3 3 9 4 12 2 6
7. Safety 5 3 15 4 20 5 25
TOTAL 81 102 96
According to selection criteria the design 2 seems to be the best design as its safety, comfort and ordinary look which improve it than other outline.

Material SelectionSelection of safety glasses material is a very essential part of design. Customers always choose good material, comfortable and cheaper glasses. Therefore, safety glasses’ range of cost, selection of material and comfort should be proper and adjustable.

Eyewear have two main parts, frame and lenses. Plastics, metals and wood are mainly used for manufacturing of frame. While plastic and glass are raw material of lenses. Each material has its own benefits and drawbacks.

Eyeglass Frame Material
Plastic
Plastic is a very cost-effective and extremely lightweight material. It is easy to make glasses frame from plastic. Other materials used in plastic frames include polyamide, nylon, polycarbonate, carbon and Optyl (a brand of epoxy resin). Propionate, polyamide, nylon and Optyl frames are all considered hypoallergenic. CITATION Erind1 l 1033 (Morgan, n.d.)
There are some plastic material which is used for making of glasses frame:
ZYL(zylonite) which is very popular material right now. The most commonly used plastic in eyeglass frames, ZYL is relatively cheaper, easy to work with, and comes in a wide variety of colours, textures, and patterns. The material is easily adjusted, but tends to get brittle with age.
Nylon-based plastic which was used in late 1940s and it is lightweight and has more transparency than other plastics. But nowadays manufacturer use blended nylon (polyamides) because nylon-based plastics are brittleness and it is difficult to adjust..
Advantages of plastic frames
Lightweight
Cost-effective
Wide variety of colours and patterns
Drawbacks
Break easily
In sunlight, strength decrease slightly
Colour can fade after some time
Metal
Nowadays metal frame is widely used in glasses because it is stronger than plastics frame. Metal frames have a very minimalist look and are generally a lot thinner and more lightweight than the plastic glasses frames.

Monel
Monel is composed of about two-thirds nickel and one-third copper. Its ability to resist stress well makes monel an excellent choice for stabilizing frame bridges and end pieces. Monel is corrosion-resistant and durable, but may cause problems for people with allergic reactions to nickel. CITATION Amy11 l 1033 (Amy Endo, 2011)Titanium
Titanium is a silver-grey metal that’s lightweight, durable, strong and corrosion-resistant but it is hard to solder or weld, and it is expensive. While titanium is known for its beneficial qualities of strength, lightness, and flexibility, it is more expensive than other metals and is restricted in its range of colours. CITATION Amynd l 1033 (Amy Endo, Frame material, n.d.)Aluminium
Aluminium is a lightweight and low in density. Its cost is less than other material.AL is also corrosion resistance but it cannot be easily welded or soldered.

Stainless-steel
This material is a mixture of nickel, manganese, and chromium. Qualities of stainless steel frames include light weight, low toxicity and strength; many stainless steel frames also are nickel-free and thus hypoallergenic.

Advantages of metal frames
stronger than other material
Flexible
Corrosion resistant
Drawbacks
skin irritation
Costly
Wood
Wood frames are usually handmade, Wood and bone, though stiffer, less adjustable, and much more expensive than other frame materials, are appealing because of their unique beauty.
Gold
Some companies make gold eyewear, typically using gold plating rather than solid gold. Generally, gold frames are used for fashion statement. It is more expensive but high flexible.

Comparison of safety glasses frame materials
Properties
Material Light-weight Strength Corrosion
resistance Flexible Variety of colours, patterns and
textures Hypoallergenic
Plastics
ZylonitePolycarbonate Metal
Titanium Stainless
steel Aluminium MonelOther
Wood Gold According to the table, polycarbonate plastics materials are more reliable, cost-effective and flexible than other raw materials. So that for design of LED safety glasses nylon based plastics is a best option.

Eyeglasses lenses material
Lenses Material
Properties Polycarbonate Plastics Glass
UV Rays High-Impact Scratching
(More resist to scratching) Less Weight Low Cost High Clarity Extreme Temperatures Some properties can consider such as temperature, resistance, weight, impact, cost and so on for choosing best lenses material. Also comparison between plastics’ and glasses’ properties give best material for lenses.

According to the above comparison, the most popular lens material for safety eyewear is polycarbonate. Polycarbonate lenses are more impact-resistant and less costly than glass lenses. While polycarbonate is a much softer lens material than glass. Even with a scratch-resistant coating, polycarbonate lenses will scratch more easily than glass lenses. CITATION Garnd l 1033 (Gary Heiting, n.d.)Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY Morgan, E. (n.d.). Eyeglass Frame Materials. (M. Mattison-Shupnick, Producer) Retrieved from All about vision: http://www.allaboutvision.com/eyeglasses/eyeglass_frame_materials.htm
Bolle Galaxy LED Safety Glasses. (n.d.). Retrieved from amazon.co.uk: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Bolle-Galaxy-LED-Safety-Glasses/dp/B01DA5WEDW
Pyramex Pivoting LED Safety Glasses . (n.d.). Retrieved from PyramexSafety.com : https://boiserigging.com/product/pyramex-pivoting-led-safety-glasses/
LIGHTSPECS Men’s Rechargeable LED Reading Glasses. (n.d.). Retrieved from Panthervision: https://www.panthervision.com/product/lightspecs-mens-rechargeable-led-reading-glasses/
Amy Endo, A. N.-A. (2011). Frame Material. Retrieved from paraoptometric resource center : https://www.aoa.org/Documents/optometric-staff/Articles/Frame-Materials.pdf
Amy Endo, A. N.-A. (n.d.). Frame material. Retrieved from paraoptmetric resource center: https://www.aoa.org/Documents/optometric-staff/Articles/Frame-Materials.pdf

Bill of MaterialsItem Buy/make
item
Machine
Time
Material used
Cost NZD
including
delivery
Where to buy
Glasses Lenses Make
2 hours
Polycarbonate $1.50 Plastics manufacturer
Frame Buy N/A Polycarbonate $1.00 Plastic manufacturer
Ear steams Buy N/A Neoprene $1.23 https://www.gearbest.com/sunglasses-sports-glasses/pp_211727.html
Photoelectric Circuit Buy N/A Composite material $2.46 https://www.aliexpress.com/item/2pcs-Light-Control-Sensor-Switch-DIY-Kit-Photosensitive-Induction-Switch-Kits-DIY-Electronic-Trainning-Integrated-Circuit/32863209601.html?ws_ab_test=searchweb0_0,searchweb201602_1_10152_10151_10065_10344_10068_10342_10547_10343_5722611_10340_10548_10341_10696_5722911_5722811_10084_5722711_10083_10618_10307_5711211_10059_308_100031_10103_10624_10623_10622_10621_10620_5711311_5722511,searchweb201603_2,ppcSwitch_4&algo_expid=fd4dc664-65b6-49d2-bfa3-42829d120493-0&algo_pvid=fd4dc664-65b6-49d2-bfa3-42829d120493&priceBeautifyAB=0
Costing of MaterialsBased on a production run of 100 units

Manufactures components
Item Material used Machining process Machine cost per hour Raw material cost Labour cost per hour Company overheads Totals
Glasses Lenses Polycarbonate Injection mould$400 $250 $25 $400 $1075

Bought Components
Item Supplies List price Delivery cost Totals
Frame Plastic manufacturer $200 $50 $250
Ear steams gearbest$200 $40 $240
Photoelectric Circuit aliexpress$250 $80 $330

Assembly and packaging cost
Item Time Cost Totals
Assembly 1 hour $25 $25
Packaging 0.5 hour $25 $25
Sum of totals
Delivery cost to client $150
Total $2095
Total per item $20.95
Calculation worksheetDescription Result
Material selected Polycarbonate
Index: 1.59
Reflectance
When light hits a lens surface in air normally, the percentage of light reflected at each surface is given by:
R = (n – 1)2 / (n + 1)2 * 100%
n=Index of material
CITATION Lar10 l 1033 (Seegers, 2010)Specific Gravity of Polycarbonates 1.21 g/cm3
Transmittance
UVA (286-320 nm) is 0.00 &
UVB (320–380 nm) is 0.00
Conclusion: Polycarbonate material has a reflectance of 5.2% per surface.

It describes that 5.2% of incident light reflected from a highly polished surface of polycarbonate. R = 5.2% per surface
Description Result
Physical Properties of Polycarbonate
Tensile Strength 70 – 80 N/mm²
Impact Strength 60 – 80 Kj/m²Thermal Coefficient of expansion 65×10-6
Density 1.20 g/cm3
CITATION Bri18 l 1033 (British Plastics Federation , 2018)Glasses sizing
Frame width 48mm to 53mm
Temple length 145mm, and 150mm 
Bridge size 15mm to 22mm
Thickness 3 mm (as per ANSI Z87.1)
So, the total weight of the glasses areW=(length*width*thickness) * Density
=(5*14.5*0.3)*1.20 W=26.1 g

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