SECTION-I INTRODUCTION 1


SECTION-I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
Communication is one the major characteristic which distinguishes human being from other creatures. Language is used as a medium for communication, there are so many languages in the whole world through which people interact with each other (Awan Ayuob & Bashir 2016). Every language has its own system which is based on Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, and Syntax (Rehman, Khan & Bukhari 2012).
Phonetics is basically systematic study of the speech sounds while Phonology deals with patterns of sound of a language or languages. Morphology provides detailed study of words and Syntax deals with structure of sentences. For every language there is different accent, they are pronounced differently, people from different geographical region, from different social status, from different ages and different educational backgrounds pronounces variously (Roach 2000 cited in Rahman et al., 2012).
Pakistan is a multicultural country where people from different culture, region, religion and ethnic group live and speak different dialects of languages which are basically their native language. Pakistan is a multi-lingual country in which more than sixty different languages being spoken (Rehman 1991 cited in Syed, Ansari & Gopang 2017). Although Urdu is a national language of Pakistan but as it is a country of 796,095 km2 area and is divided into four major provinces and many regions. Hence, along with national language Urdu there are some regional languages through which people from different region communicate (Mahmood, Asghar & Jabeen). English has been spreading throughout the world quickly (Ansari 2016). As in this 21st English has occupied vivid position of international language throughout the world and becoming Lingua Franca (Shabbir, Tariq, Bilal, Nazar & Rafiq 2013). In Pakistan English has been treated as an official language and after national and regional languages English is used as second language in the country(Bilal, Mahmood & Saleem).
According to Haycraft (1878) every country has its own regional languages which are understood and spoken by public of that specific region. Gilgit Baltistan is the northern captive entity of Pakistan. It covers approximately 72,000 km2 of land. Gilgit Baltistan is one the region of Pakistan which is famous due to its rich linguistic setting as in this region more than five languages being spoken at a time, these language include Shina, Balti, Brushaki, Wakhi and Khawar (Nazir, Nafees Saifuddin & Nafees 2017).
Whenever a person from Gilgit Baltistan speaks English there is always difference in pronunciation because they are not familiar with the International Phonetics Alphabets (IPA) symbols, they cannot differentiate between Balti and English phonology. According to Jones (1979) in every language speech sound are classified in two categories vowels and consonants. As Roach (1983) described that in IPA there are 44 sounds in the British English language, out of which 44 are consonant sounds and 12 are vowel sounds (i.e. 7 short vowel and 5 long vowel). As Schneider (2004 cited in Mahmood et al., 2011) that English spoken by the speakers of different regions naturally influence by the linguistic features of their mother tongue. Mother tongue creates difficulty in their production of speech sound and as well as change in articulation too.

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1.2 Statement of Problem
As it observed that Pakistan is a multi-lingual country in which more than sixty different languages being spoken (Rehman et al., 2017) and for every language there is different accent, they are pronounced differently, people from different geographical region, from different social status, from different ages and different educational backgrounds pronounces variously (Roach 2000 cited in Rahman et al., 2012). Therefore, the focus of this study is to explore and analyze the changes in pronunciation of English vowels and consonants produced by Gilgit Baltistan’s speaker. The problem is basically due to quite different mother tongue, Gilgit’s English speakers faces phonological difficulty in producing vowels and consonants of English language.

1.3 Objective
The aim of this study is basically:
• To explore the differences in pronunciation of speech sound of English language produced by Gilgit Baltistan’s speakers.

1.4 Research Question
Q: What are the changes in pronunciation of speech sounds of English language produced by Gilgit Baltistan’s speakers?

1.5 Justification
The reason of selecting this topic for research is basically to explore the changes Gilgit’s speakers do while pronouncing English phonemes and to bring awareness of phonological aspect in those speakers. As phonological change happens due to un awareness and mother tongue as well.

1.6 Limitation
• The study focused on limited number of participants and is confined to only one regional language of Pakistan that is Gilgit Baltistan’s language.

• The paper concentrated on some specific vowels and consonants sounds. Future researchers can give versatility to the study of some more speech sounds on comparatively large scale and as well can extend the research to other regions of the country.

• This study will not be applicable on final year students.

1.7 Scope
The study will be conducted at university level on 10 Gilgit Baltistan’s student therefore the research will help those students in identifying their lacking in pronouncing speech sound of English language.

1.8 Assumptions
This study will be conducted in area of phonology because it has been observed that phonology is one of the most interesting aspects of language. So it is important to focus it because it is impossible to neglect therefore Gilgit Baltistan’s language has is selected as the subject of this study because it unique dialects.

1.9 Definitions of Key Terms
• Phoneme
Collins Dictionary describes Phonemes as, The smallest meaningful units of produced sound in any language.

• Pronunciation
According to Cambridge Dictionary, Pronunciation is basically the way in which a word or a letter is produced or it can be said that pronunciation is the way in any language is spoken.

• Vowel
As Roach (1997) says that Vowels are the sounds in which are produced without any obstruction of air.

• Consonant
Consonants are sounds which are produced by the stopping of air (Collins English Dictionary).

? Lingua Franca
It is language which makes communication easy between people who speak in different mother languages (Cambridge Dictionary).

? PRAAT
The word PRAAT is derived from Dutch language which means ‘talk’. It is a scientific speech analyzing computer developed software program, which examines speech sounds with the help of spectrograms (Abbasi 2012).

? Shina
Shina is the language spoken by the majority in almost all districts of Gilgit Baltistan.the speakers of Shina are known as Sheens or Shinaki (MY GILGIT).

SECTION-II

RESEARCH METHOLOGY
2.1 Research Design
Research design selected for this study is a qualitative case study, because this research design will provide change in pronunciation of speech sounds of English language produced by Gilgit Baltistan’s speakers. In which the data will be collected through recording. The research will be exploratory on the basis of purpose while on the basis of data, research will be primary research. On the basis of time and place this research will be cross-sectional and field respectively.
2.2 Sample and Sampling Method
The sample of the consists 10 undergraduate students from a semi-private university who belongs to Gilgit Baltistan and is collected through purposive sampling because the research is basically a case study so the sample is selected purposively from Gilgit’s region.
2.3 Population
The population of this case study includes all under graduate Gilgit Baltistan’s speaker.
2.4 Research Tool
Word list recording will be used as research tool.
2.5 Data Collection
To find out the phonological changes produced by Gilgit’s speakers while pronouncing speech sounds of English language, students will be provided with a list of words which consists of vowel and consonant sounds and students have to speak that words aloud so that their voices can be recorded. Recording will be used as tool for data collection.
2.6 Plan of Analysis
After collecting the data through recordings, data will be acoustically analyzed through the software PRAAT version: 6.0.40 and the result will be presented in form of spectrograms.

SECTION-III

FINAL SECTION

3.1 Work Plan

S.No Activity Duration
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
01. Introduction
02. Review of literature
03. Designing of tools
04. Data Collection
05. Data Analysis
06. Conclusion
07. Submission

3.2 References
? Sheikh, Qaisera.Ashraf. (2012). An Analysis of the Vowels Sounds of Pakistani English. Bulletin of Education and Research, 34(1), 1-18. Retrieved April 07, 2018. from http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/szic/pdf_files/1_Qaisera%20Ashraf%20Sheikh_V34no1_2012.pdf.

? Bilal, Hafiz. Ahmad., Mahmood, Muhammad. Asim., & Saleem, Rana. Muhammad. (2011). Merger of / i:/ and/ I/ in Pakistani English. International journal of Linguistics, 3(1), 1-12. Retrieved April 07, 2018. from http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/ijl/article/view/1041/pdf.

? Ansari, Dr.Sanaullah. (2016). PHONOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN PAKISTANI ENGLISH AND BRITISH ENGLISH: ANALYSIS OF SINDHI SPEAKERS’ COGNITIVE MANAGEMENT OF RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION. Grassroots, 50(11), 39-58. Retrieved April 11, 2018. From http://sujo.usindh.edu.pk/index.php/Grassroots/article/view/2960.

? Abbasi, Abdul. Malik. (2012). A Phonetic-Acoustic Study of Sindhi-Accented English for Better English Pronunciation. International J. soc. Sci ; Education, 2(2), 146-157. Retrieved 07 April, 2018. from file:///C:/Users/USER/Downloads/1594-1-1600-1-10-20151205%20(1).pdf.

? Syed, Nasir. Abbas., Gopang, Illahi. Bux., ; Ansari, Sanaullah.(2017). Perception and Production of Consonants of English by Pakistani Speakers. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(3), 201-214. Retrieved April 11, 2018. from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315934896_Perception_and_Production_of_Consonants_of_English_by_Pakistani_Speakers.

? Awan, Dr. Abdul. Ghafoor., Ayoub, Muhammad. Tariq., ; Bashir, Saima. (2016). Identification of the Problems of Saraiki Speakers of English in the Production of English Vowels at Secondary Level. Journal of Literature, Languages and Linguistics,25, 35-44. Retrieved April 07, 2018. from http://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JLLL/article/viewFile/32267/33156.

? Khan, Afzal., Shehzad, Wasima., ; Ullah, Inayat. (2017). Articulation of English Consonants, Vowels and Diphthongs by Pashto Speakers in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(5), 19-33. Retrieved April 11, 2018. from http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijel/article/viewFile/67943/37896.

? Rahman, Ghani., Khan, Abdul. Qadir., ; Bukhari, Nadeem. Haider. (2012). ENGLISH PROBLEMATIC CONSONANTS FOR PASHTO SPEAKERS. Academic Research International, 2(1), 695-704. Retrieved April 07, 2018. from http://www.savap.org.pk/journals/ARInt./Vol.2(1)/2012(2.1-68).pdf.

? Shabbir, Syeda. Iqra., Tariq, Abdur. Rehman., Bilal, Hafiz. Ahmad., Nazar, Huma., ; Rafiq, Rana. Muhammad.Haris. (2013). CONSONANTS OF PAKISTANI ENGLISH: A STUDY OF /?/; /Ð/. Academic Research International, 4(6), 114-122. Retrieved April 11, 2018. from http://www.savap.org.pk/journals/ARInt./Vol.4(6)/2013(4.6-14).pdf.

? Mahmood, Muhammad. Asim., Asghar, Muhammad., ; Jabeen, Farhat. (2011). Acoustic Analysis of /?/ and /ð/ Sounds in Pakistani English. International Education Studies, 4(4), 131-136. Retrieved April 07, 2018. from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260041669_Acoustic_Analysis_of_th_and_d_Sounds_in_Pakistani_English.

? Jones, Daniel. (1979). An Outline of English Phonetics. New Dehli, Kaylani Publishers.

? Roach, Peter. (1983). English phonetics and phonology. A practical course. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

? Nazir, Rumana., Nafees, Maisoor. Ahmad., Saifuddin., ; Nafees, Mahrukh. Language Attitude of Adolescent Shina Speakers Towards Shina, Urdu and English in Schools of Gilgit-Baltistan,Pakistan. Communication and Linguistics Studies, 3(3), 22-27.retrieved April 15, 2018. From http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.cls.20170303.11.pdf.

? Roach, Peter. (1991). English phonetics and phonology. A practical course. (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

? Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d) Retrieved May 14, 2018. From
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/pronunciation.

? Collins English Dictionary. (n.d) Retrieved 12 May, 2018 fromhttps://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/phoneme.

? MY GILGIT. (n.d) Retrieved 12 May, 2018. From http://mygilgit.com/gilgit-baltistan/languages.php.

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