UNIT 15 Analyse and Present Business Data 1

Analyse and Present Business Data
1.1 Explain the uses and limitations of primary and secondary data.
Primary Data:
a. Uses
• It consists of information obtained in real time and first-hand.
• It is not affected by researchers’ biasness which makes it to minimise chances of conflicts of interest (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016).
• All real variables are considered when gathering the data. Hence, primary data is more reliable.

b. Limitations
• Research and study activities involved make it expensive to collect.
• It consumes a lot of time to gather, and analyse (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016).
• The data may not always be feasible owing to a number of other variables (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016).
Secondary data:
a. Uses
• It is cheaper to collect since field studies and research is not conducted (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016).
• It helps in saving time because there are no field studies involved.
• It consists of references and reliable sources which makes it trustable.

b. Limitations
• The data may lack the succinct information which the researcher may be after.
• Requires intensive research to validate the data.
• Does not put into consideration other real-time variables which would have been considered if it was collected first-hand.

1.2 Explain the uses and limitations of quantitative and qualitative data.
Quantitative data
a. Uses
• Provides clear and precise information which makes it more reliable.
• It can be presented in different forms like charts, and graphs.
• Provides a wide range of information which makes it to provide a reliable piece of information.

b. Limitations
• Limits the number of response from the respondents.
• Require complex analytic procedures which consume time and resources.
• It is only specific on certain topics; hence, it may not cover other complex situations.
Qualitative data
a. Uses
• More reliable since it provides further explanation of results.
• It includes a variety of resources and references which make it more reliable.
• It is easy to understand since it does not include specific response.

b. Limitations
• Data analysis and presentation consumes a lot of time and expenses.
• Evaluator bias may cause conflicts of interest.
• It is only economical when small population used.

1.3 Evaluate the issues relating to the validity and reliability of data and its analysis
There are number of issues which relate to the validity and reliability of data and its analysis. First, it is affected by population homogeneity. When a certain aspect in a population under study is homogenous and as per the expectations of the research, the data will be deemed valid and realistic (Baker ; Michael, 2008). Secondly, the duration taken to collect the data affects the validity and reliability of data. For data to be valid and reliable, enough time of the research should be given. This will be necessary to ensure that enough data is collected to ensure succinct analysis. Data which is collected within a short duration is not reliable owing to the few variables which affect it within the short duration (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016).
Thirdly, the objectivity of the study affects the reliability of data in that; the data which is collected and fulfils the objectives of the study is deemed to be reliable and aid. Hence, its analysis ensures that the objectives of the study were followed and dully fulfilled (Baker ; Michael, 2008). Lastly, type of variables also affects the data analysis and reliability. This is because data which is affected by real time variables and the variables like language barrier, environmental factors and peoples culture are overcome, provides a valid and reliable piece of information. However, when the variables were not overcome during the study, the data is not considered valid and reliable (Baker ; Michael, 2008).
1.4 Explain the use of IT tools to carry out research
Information technology aids in communication. For example, researchers can be able to communicate with the respondents via information systems like emails and social media platforms. Secondly, Information technology (IT) helps in submitting of research materials with more ease. For example, questionnaires and surveys can reach the respondents in soft copy versions via websites and personal emails (Baker ; Michael, 2008). Hence, it minimises the cost incurred of travelling the places of studies. Thirdly, information systems help in conducting further research from online journals and articles. In this case, more information about a topic under study can be obtained from online books. This makes it easier to refer to certain sources through use of digital object identifier (DOI) links.
Additionally, information technology is vital when there is a need to combine data. For example, through computer presentation, recorded data which is in the form of pictures can be attached to the accompany information to provide proof of the study. Lastly, Information technology helps in keeping sensitive data securely (Baker ; Michael, 2008). Herein, IT tools provide an option to the user to encrypt data using passwords and other security protocols. This helps in ensuring that the stored data is safe from unauthorized users, additionally, data can be stored in information systems for longer time which may be used for future references (Baker ; Michael, 2008).
1.5 Assess the risks attached to making judgments based on limited or unrepresentative samples
There are a number of risks which are attached to the making of conclusions. First unrepresentative samples may be misleading. This is because; they may only show one side of the topic under study. Hence, the information obtained from limited and unrepresentative samples will not provide reliable information which is vital in making the reliable findings about a research topic.
Secondly, limited samples are affected by few variables. For example, a study on a small population which is only affected by cholera may not provide sufficient information on a topic relating to the study of all waterborne diseases. More so, a researcher will not be able to make satisfactory wide conclusion about a study topic since the information presented by a limited sample is limited. Lastly, unrepresentative samples put the research work at the risk of christened as one that creates a sense of conflict of interest. This is because, limited samples provide less information which creates a niche for nuanced understanding about a topic of interest.
1.6 Assess the risks attached to generalising research findings
Generalisation of findings is risky because it may be misleading. Generalisation uses a representative idea which may not apply to all. For example, generalisation about certain behaviours in a population may not provide a vivid explanation because the behaviour in question may be affected by variables like age, gender and/or social statuses. Additionally, generalisation creates the risk of unreliability of data and findings. A study which is deemed to be unreliable is not applicable in the context of research (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016).
For example, a generalisation on certain cultural norms of a target population may lead to disagreements within the population under study (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016). Those who do not agree with the findings may render the research findings as untrue which make them unreliable. Lastly, it creates the risk of conflict of interests (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016). Herein, generalisation may be deemed as the idea of the researcher. Therefore, the generalised idea may be perceived as the personal stipulation of the researcher which also makes the validity of research findings questionable (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016).
1.7 Explain different formats and techniques for the presentation of the analysis
• Graphical format. This involves bar and line graphs. It consists of both the independent and dependent variables located on each axis of the graph.
• Pie charts. These show the specific share of each item under study.
• Scorecards. They show the specific rating of a specific item under study.
• Maps, texts and Images. These show the specific location, appearance and meaning of certain aspects regarding to the topic of interest under study.
Administer the recruitment and selection process
1.1. Explain the different administrative requirements of internal and external recruitment
Internal recruitment refers to the creation of opportunities to for the existing staff. External recruitment refers to the creation of an employment opportunity for other candidates who are not staff members of the organisation in question. For both of these recruitment activities there are a number of administrative requirements which must be met for the recruitment activity to be considered professional (Norrish and Rundall, 2013). Firstly, the administration should ensure that that there is vacant position. Secondly, they should ensure that for internal recruitment, there are potential staff members who can fill the vacant position in question. Thirdly, the administration must ensure that there are provided relevant specifications for the vacant positions (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016). This provides the specificity of the kind of candidates required for the position in question. Lastly, the administrators must provide the job description to ensure that all potential candidates are of the kind job they are applying for (Norrish and Rundall, 2013).
1.2 Describe the uses of a job description and a person specification
Job description allows a candidate to have a scope of the kind and type of duties he/she is applying for. It allows the candidates to align their expectations with the visions and missions of the organisation. Thirdly, it allows the administrations to develop relevant questions during the recruitment process. Lastly, job descriptions act as a means of communication of the administration to the candidates of the expected professional qualifications (Aiken ; Clarke et al., 2012). This helps in ensuring that all objectives of the organization are communicated to the potential candidates even before they apply for the vacant positions. On the other hand, person specifications ensure that the candidates applying for the vacant position have the required, personal skills, qualities, academic qualifications, certifications and working experience. This helps in ensuring that only relevant candidates apply for the position in question (Aiken ; Clarke et al., 2012).
1.3 Explain the administrative requirements of different methods of selection
To use the various methods of selection the administration should ensure that they have the relevant technology. For example, in case of online selection method, the organisation should have a working website or social media platforms where they can conduct the recruitment process. Secondly, the administration must consider the available recruitment finances. In this case, the administration must have sufficient funds to accommodate certain number of candidates who show up for the selection process (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016). Additionally, administrators must have sufficient manpower to carry out the selection process effectively and economically. In this case, all those carrying out the selection process must have the relevant professional qualification to ethically conduct the process (Snelson ; Chareen, 2016).
1.4 Explain the requirements of different pre-employment checks to be carried out
Pre-employment checks are important during job recruitment. Firstly, the employer must have background information of the candidates. This helps in assessing the behaviour and professional discipline of the candidate (Norrish and Rundall, 2013). Secondly, the employer must have provisional academic certificates. These allow the employer to assess the professional qualification of the candidate in question. Thirdly, the employer must access the social media or other platforms which may equally provide information about the candidate in question. In this case, the employer must have possible referees who may provide further information about the candidate (Norrish and Rundall, 2013). On the other hand, a candidate must ensure that he/she has all the relevant information regarding to, job description, organisational history and salary policies. This ensures that he/she is aware of the culture and working environment of the organisation in question (Norrish and Rundall, 2013).
1.5 Explain what information needs to be communicated to successful and unsuccessful applicants at each stage of the recruitment and selection process
1. Job descriptions and person specifications. Employers must ensure that provide the relevant information to the general public to ensure that only viable candidates apply for the stated position (Lewis ; Payant, 2013).
2. Background information. After potential candidates have applied for the positions. Background checks are conducted. All who have a successful background check up are given the information to proceed to the interviews. All those who are not successful should be asked to apply in the future for similar or other positions (Lewis ; Payant, 2013).
3. Interview. All successful applicants are taken into an interview session. All those who succeed in the interview are granted the position(s). All those who are not successful are asked to apply for similar or other positions in future and cases of such opportunities. All recruited applicants are informed of the organisation policies, principles and working objectives (Lewis ; Payant, 2013).
1.6 Explain the requirements of confidentiality, data protection and system security
To ensure top-notch security of employees, the organisation in questions must have legal policies which will ensure that all stakeholders respect the sense of privacy in an organisation. Additionally, an organisation must have secure information systems (Norrish and Rundall, 2013). Secure information systems are those which cannot be phished or hacked in cases of cybercrimes. Similarly, the organisation should install security departments. These ensure that all employees are protected from all physical and virtual risks (Norrish and Rundall, 2013).

Store and Retrieve Information
1.1 Describe systems and procedures for storing and retrieving information
There are various systems used in storing and retrieving information. In the modern century, there are mainly two types of systems used to store and retrieve information. Firstly, there is the physical system (Ulric et al, 2014). Physical systems are those which are operated manually. For example, there are cabinets, safes, index cards and tray cards. These systems are usually easy to operate since no encryption is required. Physical information storage sites are also reliable when information is in hard copies. Moreover, physical information systems are useful since the stored data cannot be accidentally erased from the where they are kept (Lewis ; Payant, 2013). However, they require proper handling techniques to improve durability of the data stored in them. To store the information in physical storage systems, all information must be in hard copy. It should be neatly arranged or filed (Ulric et al, 2014).
Secondly, there is an electronic storage system. Electronic storage systems include storing of information in hard disks, memory cards, flash disks, cloud computing, and Universal Serial Bus (USB) or network storage networks. These systems are easily accessed at any time. Information can be easily and instantly accessed (Ulric et al, 2014). However, they require computer knowledge to use them. One can easily encrypt the information stored in these systems which makes them secure. Information can be stored for long (Ulric et al, 2014). Lastly, to retrieve or store information, one requires a system which can access operating system of the devices like a smart phone or a computer. However, the information stored therein is susceptible to cybercrimes and can be erased at any time if it is not stored safely (Ulric et al, 2014).
1.2 Explain how to create filing systems to facilitate information identification and retrieval
Filing systems are handy when it comes to information storage and retrieval. To create a reliable filing system, naming and choice of version should highly be considered. To create viable filing systems, one has to ensure that easy naming technique is used. This can include, choice of the type of naming format to be used (Ulric et al, 2014). For example, one should choose an alphabetic, type, colour or numeric naming technique. These naming procedures help in categorizing the type of information stored which makes it easy to retrieve when need arises. Additionally, versions of filing systems should be considered to ensure quick and easy storage and retrieval of information (Ulric et al, 2014). For example, the type of file or type of information being stored should be considered to ensure specificity when the need for retrieval arises.
1.3 Explain how to use different search techniques to locate and retrieve information
Searching techniques are important when searching for information. When searching electronically, one can search using the size of the file being search for. Herein, the searcher arranges the files in an ascending or descending order depending on the size of file. Additionally, electronic information can be searched based on date. Information is arranged based on the date in which it was stored. The searcher can thus locate the file if he/she knows the exact data in which the file as stored. Thirdly, search can be based on the type of file. For example, word documents can be separated from the portable document format (PDF) using the type of file search technique (Ulric et al, 2014).
For manual storage systems, information can be retrieved using the alphabetical naming system. The name of the file is located alphabetical based on the first letter of the name of the file. Secondly, it can be obtained using the subject category. Herein, the topics which relate to the file can be searched for to access the specific location of the file. Thirdly, the file can be searched numerically. For all file which were stored using numbers, the number of the file can be searched for to locate the specific situation of the file in question (Norrish and Rundall, 2013).
1.4 Describe what to do when problems arise when storing or retrieving information
In situations of misfiling, lost data, hardware or software problems, the organisation should seek the aid of back up data. For example, in cases of software problems, the organisation can update the software systems to ensure accessibility of the data stored in the systems. In cases of misfiling, all possible locations of the files should be sought to ensure that it is obtained. For example, in cases of electronic misfiling, naming orders, file type, size, author or date can be searched for. In cases of hardware problems, back up data should always be stored for such problems. Hence, back up data can be used instead of the lost data.